Administrative Indicator: Local Officials’ Cognitive Structure of Policies for Making Resilient Cities

  • Kenshi BabaEmail author
  • Kosuke Shirai
  • Mitsuru Tanaka


In order to measure administrative indicators, we conducted a questionnaire survey among local governments across Japan. The results show that risks perceived by most local government officials included earthquakes, population decreases, and increases in greenhouse gas emissions. According to the questionnaire results, resilience measures prepared and implemented include the promotion of renewable energy as a precautionary measure as well as the enhancement of methods to collect and provide disaster-related information as an adaptive measure. There are differences among departments of planning, disaster prevention, and environmental policy. The multiple regression analysis results for each department demonstrate that the effects of drivers and barriers in the policy process are stronger than that of the perception and evaluations. As for environmental policy departments, the presence of other local governments to refer to is important in promoting policy. It is likely that the presence of networks of local governments would be important as an agent to promote policy transfer.


Questionnaire Risk perception Vulnerability assessment Drivers and barriers Policy process Preparation and implementation of measures 



We would like to express our sincere gratitude to the respondents who participated in the questionnaire survey and to Ms. Natsumi Ebitani (Graduate school of Agricultural and life sciences, University of Tokyo) and Ms. Izumi Hirata (Graduate school of Engineering, University of Tokyo) who assisted editing.


  1. Adger W (2000) Social and ecological resilience: are they related? Prog Hum Geogr 24:347–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen KM (2006) Community-based preparedness and climate adaptation: local capacity building in the Philippines. Disasters 30(1):81–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baba K (2005) Policy making processes on environmental and energy measures for sustainable city by Japanese local governments. J City Plann Inst Jpn 40(3):931–936. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  4. Baba K, Tagashira N, Jin Z (2012) A potentiality, drivers and barriers of diffusion of low carbon policy for business and industrial sector in local governments. J Environ Sci Jpn 25(2):73–86. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  5. Baba K, Matsuura M, Kudo T, Watanabe S, Kawakubo S, Chujo A, Tanaka H, Tanaka M (2017) Climate change adaptation strategies of local governments in Japan, Oxford research encyclopedia of climate science, 27 September, 2017, 1–27Google Scholar
  6. Bergamini N, Blasiak R, Eyzaguirre P, Ichikawa K, Mijatovic D, Nakao F, Subramanian SM (2013) Indicators of resilience in socio-ecological production landscapes (SEPLs), UNU-IAS Policy Report. UNU-IAS. Retrieved August 5, 2015, from
  7. Cutter SL, Barnes L, Berry M, Burton C, Evans E, Tate E, Webb J (2008) A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Glob Environ Chang 18:598–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Godschalk D (2003) Urban hazard mitigation: creating resilient cities. Nat Hazard Rev 4:136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ICLEI-Local Government for Sustainability (2012) Preparing for tomorrow strategy 2012–2018, from
  10. Jha AK, Miner TW, Stanton-Geddes Z (eds) (2013) Building urban resilience: principles, tools, and practice. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Longstaff PH, Armstrong NJ, Perrin K, Parker WM, Hidek M (2010) Building resilient communities: a preliminary framework for assessment. Homeland Secur Aff 1(3):1–23Google Scholar
  12. Norris FH, Stevens SP, Pfefferbaum B, Wyche KF, Pfefferbaum RL (2008) Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. Am J Community Psychol 41:127–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sharma D, Singh R, Singh R (2013) Urban climate resilience: a review of the methodologies adopted under the ACCCRN initiative in Indian cities. Asian cities climate resilience working paper series 5. Retrieved October 14, 2015, from
  14. Tobin GA (1999) Sustainability and community resilience: the holy grail of hazards planning? Environ Hazard 1:13–25Google Scholar
  15. UNISDR (2012) How to make cities more resilient a handbook for local governments leaders. UNISDR. Retrieved August 29, 2013, from
  16. van Aalst MK, Cannon T, Burton I (2008) Community level adaptation to climate change: the potential role of participatory community risk assessment. Glob Environ Chang 18:165–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tokyo City UniversityKanagawaJapan
  2. 2.Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc.TokyoJapan
  3. 3.Hosei UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations