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Global Market and Field Studies of Arsenic Accumulation in Rice

  • Penradee ChanpiwatEmail author
  • Suthipong Stiannopkao
  • Myoung-Soo Ko
  • Kyoung-Woong Kim
Chapter

Abstract

Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous and naturally occurring metalloid that poses significant carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic health risks to human. Apart from drinking water, food is the other major source of As exposure for humans. A principal source of As in diet for the general population living in the non-As endemic areas is rice. Rice is a staple food for the global population. The annual rice consumption per capita has been increasing over time. The issue of As accumulation in rice and its potential health impacts have become a global public health concern for several decades, as the rice consumption per capita is normally high and As is classified as group 1 carcinogen. Therefore, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, and the World Health Organization (WHO) food standards program have established the maximum allowance level of As, especially inorganic As, in rice grain. This chapter draws attention to the most updated data on the total and inorganic As concentrations in the most popular types of rice sold in the markets of all the world regions. The bioaccessible As concentrations were also reported in this chapter, as this fraction is believed to represent the amount of As that is actually taken up by the human body. Furthermore, considerable attention is given to the field studies of As in rice grain which were cultivated in the As-contaminated areas.

Keywords

Raw rice Polished rice White rice Brown rice Inorganic arsenic Bioaccessibility 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Office of International Affairs, the Chulalongkorn University Scholarship for Short-Term Research, and the Ministry of Science and Technology in the Republic of Korea through the International Environmental Research Institute (IERI) of Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST).

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Penradee Chanpiwat
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Suthipong Stiannopkao
    • 3
  • Myoung-Soo Ko
    • 4
  • Kyoung-Woong Kim
    • 5
  1. 1.Environmental Research InstituteChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM)Chulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  3. 3.LNU-MSU College of International BusinessLiaoning Normal UniversityDalianPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of Energy and Resources EngineeringKangwon National UniversityChuncheon-siRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.School of Earth Sciences and Environmental EngineeringGwangju Institute of Science and TechnologyGwangjuRepublic of Korea

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