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Preventive and Therapeutic Strategies for Acute and Chronic Human Arsenic Exposure

  • S. J. S. Flora
Chapter

Abstract

Arsenic, a ubiquitous metalloid, is naturally present in the lithosphere (Earth’s crusts, soil, rock, etc.), hydrosphere (surface water, aquifers, deep wells, etc.), atmosphere, and biosphere. In South Asia, Some studies reported that GSH contamination in groundwater in the Ganga- Brahmaputra fluvial plains in India and Padma-Meghna fluvial plains in Bangladesh has been found to have a huge impact on human health, and its consequences have been reported as the world’s biggest natural groundwater calamities. After entering into the body, it is distributed in a large number of organs including the lungs, liver, kidney, and skin. The clinical manifestations of arsenic poisoning are myriad, and the correct diagnosis depends largely on awareness of the problem. It is very difficult to diagnose early symptoms of arsenicosis because such non-specific symptoms may also be present in many other diseases. Medicine used for remedy of arsenicosis has been found to be unsatisfactory by repeated application and experience. The number of chelating drugs has been used for the treatment of arsenic poisoning. Some of them have been found to be effective during acute poisoning; however, there is still no safe and effective antidote available for treating chronic arsenicosis. Few natural and herbal extracts too have been attempted with limited success. This chapter reviews some of the fundamentals of arsenic toxicity and also summarizes currently available remedial measures.

Keywords

Arsenic Chelation Dimercaprol Melatonin Taurine Toxicity 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. J. S. Flora
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology & ToxicologyNational Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research-RaebareliLucknowIndia

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