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Sustainable Management and Restoration of the Fertility of Damaged and Contaminated Lands and Soils

  • Martin BanovEmail author
  • Svetla Rousseva
  • Pavel Pavlov
Chapter

Abstract

The material is related to the description of the existing methods of technical and biological recultivation in order to restore the fertility of the damaged lands and soils by the traditional method – using humus soil material. New, innovative technologies are recommended to smoothly restore soil fertility by using waste products. The two stages of reclamation – technical and biological – are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods of their implementation are examined. Various technological solutions have been justified to restore the fertility of damaged terrain by using reclamation substrates, which are mixtures of geological and waste materials in different proportions depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the individual components. Also used is a biological substrate with different components, mixed in volume ratios – geological materials with mild to heavy sandy-clayey mechanical composition, organic matter (humus), low nutrients for plants and lack of toxic components and compost materials. Technological developments for the recultivation of landfills by using sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which compensate for the shortage of humus materials, have been considered. The characteristics of the sediments reveal that they are an organic mass rich in macro- and trace elements and can be used as a fertilizer and source for enrichment of soils with organic matter and nutrients in reclamation activities.

Keywords

Methods of technical and biological recultivation Damaged lands Soils Organic matter Sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) 

Abbreviation

Ag

Argentum

Al

Aluminium

Al2O3

Aluminium oxide

As

Arsenicum

Au

Aurum

BDS

Bulgarian State Standard

CaO

Calcium oxide

Cd

Cadmium

Co

Cobalt

Cr

Chromium

Cu

Copper

Fe met.

Iron

Fe

Iron

FeO+Fe2O3

Iron(II) oxide + iron(III) oxide

Ga

Gallium

Ge

Germanium

K2O

Potassium oxide

MgO

Magnesium oxide

Mn

Manganum

MnO

Manganum oxide

MPC

Maximum permissible concentration

Na2O

Sodium oxide

Ni

Nickel

N-NH4

Ammonium

N-NO3

Nitrate

P2O5

Diphosphorus pentoxide

P2O5

Phosphorus pentoxide

Pb

Plumbum

pH (H2O)

Acid water

pH (KCL)

Acid potassium chloride

pH

Acid

S

Sulphur

Sb

Stibium

Se

Selenium

Se

Selenium

SiO2

Silicon dioxide

S2O4

Sulfite

Te

Tellurium

TiO2

Titanium dioxide

WWTP

Wastewater treatment plant

WWTPs

Wastewater treatment plants

Zn

Zinc

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Genesis, Geography and Soil ClassificationInstitute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant ProtectionSofiaBulgaria
  2. 2.Department of Soil ErosionInstitute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant ProtectionSofiaBulgaria
  3. 3.University of Mining and Geology “St. Ivan Rilski”SofiaBulgaria

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