Purtscher retinopathy is a microangiopathy characterized by loss of vision within hours to days after an indirect ocular injury, typically associated with cranial trauma or thoracic compression (Miguel et al. 2013). The incidence is an average of 2.4 persons per million per year (Medeiros et al. 2009; Xia et al. 2017). It was first described by Otmar Purtscher in 1910 in patients after severe head trauma with retinal findings as cotton-wool spots, retinal hemorrhage, non-capillary perfusion areas, and optic disk swelling (Fig. 7.1) (Buckley and James 1996; Agrawal and McKibbin 2007). “Purtscher-like retinopathy” is the term used to describe similar retinal signs without history of trauma.