Punctate Inner Choroidopathy

  • Hyeong Gon YuEmail author
  • Dae Joong Ma
Part of the Retina Atlas book series (RA)


Punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) is a relatively uncommon idiopathic inflammatory multifocal chorioretinopathy, which occurs at the level of the outer retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and inner choroid. PIC was first described in 1984 by Watzke and colleagues in a series of 10 young myopic women who presented with blurred central vision, photopsia, and paracentral scotomas (Watzke et al. 1984). PIC is considered one of the “white dot syndromes” and is reported as having a considerable overlap with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (Gass 2003; Ahnood et al. 2017; Francis et al. 2005). The development of various imaging modalities has led to a better understanding of PIC, but whether PIC is truly a separate disease entity or simply a subset of the so-called PIC/MCP spectrum is still controversial (Jampol and Becker 2003; Spaide et al. 2013).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologySeoul National University HospitalSeoulRepublic of Korea

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