Characteristics and Development of State Statistics

  • Shinichiro TabataEmail author


The state statistical systems of Russia differ significantly between the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and the Russian Federation. In the period of the Soviet Union, we can distinguish three periods: from the Russian Revolution to the 1920s; the Stalin period; and the period after the mid-1950s. Despite the differences, we can point out three characteristics of the Russian and Soviet statistical systems. First, a so-called centralized statistical system functioned in which censuses and statistical surveys were carried out by the central statistical organization. Second, in most of the periods, a system of reporting statistics was constructed based on information collected by regular reports from business entities. Third, statistical resources prepared by administrative institutions have been very rich and have been well preserved.


Russian statistics Soviet statistics Zemstvo statistics Sample surveying Census 


  1. Anon (1987). Uskorit’ perestroiku deiatel’nosti i organizatsionnoi struktury statisticheskikh organov. Vestnik statistiki, (12), 3–6.Google Scholar
  2. Anon (1988). O korennoi perestroika upravleniia ekonomikoi: sbornik dokumentov. Moscow: Politizdat.Google Scholar
  3. Anon (1993). 150 let rossiiskoi gosudarstvennoi statistike, 75 let gosudarstvennoi statistike Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Vestnik statistiki, (5), 3–21.Google Scholar
  4. Arima, T. (1973). Studies on Russian Industrial History: Investigation of Historical Premise of the Emancipation of the Serfs (in Japanese). Tokyo: Tokyo University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Becker, A. S. (1972). National Income Accounting in the USSR. In Treml, V. G. and Hardt, J. P. (Eds.), Soviet Economic Statistics (pp. 69–119) Durham: Duke U. P.Google Scholar
  6. Campbell, R. W. (1972). The Changing Role of Statistics in the Soviet Economic System. In Treml, V. G. and Hardt, J. P. (Eds.), Soviet Economic Statistics (pp. 21–44) Durham: Duke U. P.Google Scholar
  7. Danilov, V. P., and Miniuk, A. I. (1998). Otchet (analiticheskaia zapiska) po teme: ‘Sovetskaia statistika: 1918–1991 gody. mimeo (a Japanese translation is in NIRA Policy Research, 12(7): pp. 8–23, 1999).Google Scholar
  8. Goskomstat Rossii (1996a). Metodologicheskie polozhenie po statistike. Moscow: Goskomstat Rossii.Google Scholar
  9. Goskomstat Rossii (1996b). Rossiiskaia gosudarstvennaia statistika 1802–1996. Moscow: Goskomstat Rossii.Google Scholar
  10. Goskomstat Rossii (1998). Metodologicheskie polozhenie po statistike. Moscow: Goskomstat Rossii.Google Scholar
  11. Goskomstat Rossii (2000). Metodologicheskie polozhenie po statistike. Moscow: Goskomstat Rossii.Google Scholar
  12. Goskomstat Rossii (2003). Metodologicheskie polozhenie po statistike. Moscow: Goskomstat Rossii.Google Scholar
  13. Goskomstat Rossii (2004). Organizatsiia gosudarstvennoi statistiki v Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Moscow: Goskomstat Rossii.Google Scholar
  14. Grossman, G. (1985). Soviet Statistics of Physical Output and Industrial Commodities. Westport: Greenwood Press (Originally published by Princeton U. P., Princeton, 1960).Google Scholar
  15. Heleniak, T. and Motivans, A. (1991). A Note on ‘Glasnost’ and the Soviet Statistical System. Soviet Studies, 43(3), 473–490.Google Scholar
  16. IMF et al. (1991). Appendix II-2 Statistical Issues. In IMF et al., A Study of the Soviet Economy, Vol. 1 (pp. 133–169), Paris, Washington DC, and London: IMF et al.Google Scholar
  17. Ivanov, Iu. N. (2006). K 80-letiiu pervogo balansa narodnogo khoziaistva SSSR. Voprosy statistiki, (4), 43–50.Google Scholar
  18. Iwasaki, T. (2012). Statistics for Economic Calculation: Balance Theory and Optimal Plan Theory (in Japanese). Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Hyoronsha.Google Scholar
  19. Kazer, M. (1972). The Publication of Soviet Statistics. In Treml, V. G. and Hardt, J. P. (Eds.), Soviet Economic Statistics (pp. 45–65) Durham: Duke U. P.Google Scholar
  20. Kuboniwa, M. (1990). Foundations for Analysis of Contemporary Socialist Economy (in Japanese). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.Google Scholar
  21. Kuboniwa, M. and Tabata, S. (Eds.), (1999). The Russian Economy at a Crossroads: Transition to a Market Economy and Statistical System (In Japanese). Tokyo: Aoki Shoten.Google Scholar
  22. Lenin, V. I. (1977). V. I. Lenin: Collected Works, Vol. 5, fifth printing. Moscow: Progress Publications.Google Scholar
  23. Matsuzato, K. (1995). The End of Zemstvo: Possibility of Civic Democracy in Russia. In Ieda, O., Matsuzato, K., and Wada, H. (Eds.), History of the Slavic World, The Slavic World, Vol. 3 (pp. 243–269) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Kobundo.Google Scholar
  24. Miniuk, A. I. (Ed.), (2014). Sovetskaia gosudarstvennaia statistika: rassekrechennye statisticheskie izdaniia (1948–1963) i svodnye statisticheskie dokumenty (1942–1963) TsSU SSSR. Moscow: Drevlekhranilishche.Google Scholar
  25. Mochizuki, K. (1984). Reproduction Structure of the Soviet Economy: Its Statistical Studies (in Japanese). Tokyo: Taga Shuppan.Google Scholar
  26. Nonomura, K. (1958). National Income and Reproduction (in Japanese). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.Google Scholar
  27. Rosstat (2006). Metodologicheskie polozhenie po statistike. Moscow: Rosstat.Google Scholar
  28. Rosstat (2013). Istoriia rossiiskoi gosudarstvennoi statistiki: 1811–2011. Moscow: Statistika Rossii.Google Scholar
  29. Sasaki, T. (1974). A Note on the Official Statistics of the Russian Empire (in Japanese). Keizai Kenkyu, 25(3), 276–284.Google Scholar
  30. Seliunin, V. and Khanin, G. (1987). Lukavaia tsifra. Novyi mir, (2), 181–201.Google Scholar
  31. Simchera, V. M., Sokolin, V. A., Mashihin, E. A., and Sheviakov, A. Iu. (2001). Entsiklopediia statisticheskikh publikatsii X-XX vv. Moscow: Finansy i statistika.Google Scholar
  32. Suhara, M. (2013). A Study of Soviet Industry: An Attempt to Estimate a Long-term Production Index (in Japanese). Tokyo: Ochanomizu Shobo.Google Scholar
  33. Tabata, S. (1994). The Anatomy of Russian Foreign Trade Statistics. Post-Soviet Geography, 35(8), 433–454.Google Scholar
  34. Takeuchi, K. (1968). Family Budget Survey in Russia. Shogaku Tokyu, 19(2), 173–188.Google Scholar
  35. Tiurina, E. A. (1999). Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi arkhiv ekonomiki i ego informatsionnye vosmozhnosti v oblasti izucheniia ekonomicheskoi istorii SSSR i Rossii. Discussion Paper/Asian Historical Statistics Project, No. D99-2, 1–40.Google Scholar
  36. Tomioka, Sh. (1998). Studies on Russian Economic History: The Latter Half of 19th Century to the Beginning of 20th Century (in Japanese). Tokyo: Yuhikaku.Google Scholar
  37. Treml, V. G. (1988). Perestroyka and Soviet Statistics. Soviet Economy, 4(1), 65–94.Google Scholar
  38. Wheatcroft, S. G. (1990). Statistical Sources for the Study of Soviet Social History in the Prewar Period. In Fitzpatrick, S. and Viola, L. (Eds.), A Researcher’s Guide to Sources on Soviet Social History in the 1930s (pp. 153–175). Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  39. Wheatcroft, S. G., and Davies, R. W. (Eds.), (1985). Materials for a Balance of the Soviet National Economy 1928–1930. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P.Google Scholar
  40. Wheatcroft, S. G., and Davies, R. W. (1994). The Crooked Mirror of Soviet Economic Statistics. In Davies, R. W., Harrison, M., and Wheatcroft, S. G. (Eds.), The Economic Transformation of the Soviet Union, 1913–1945 (pp. 24–37). Cambridge: Cambridge U. P.Google Scholar
  41. Yamaguchi, A. (2003). Establishment of the State Statistical System of Russia (in Japanese). Chiba: Azusa Shuppan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Slavic-Eurasian Research CenterHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations