Supplement: Soviet Foreign Trade Earnings Revisited

  • Masaaki Kuboniwa
  • Shinichiro Tabata
  • Yasushi NakamuraEmail author


In this chapter, we witness that Soviet statistics authorities attempted to incorporate foreign trade earnings into Soviet national income, based on a unique formula. First, we show that they must have applied one of the well-known formulas for trading gains arising from changes in terms of trade to their specific accounting context. Then, we prove that this Soviet practice should have been corrected. Second, we reveal our estimate of Soviet foreign trade earnings, calculated using Soviet official data on foreign trade and input-output tables, and then we explore the implications of our estimate. We further look at how contemporary Russia has followed the Soviet statistical and institutional legacy of reporting foreign trade earnings in the national accounts.


Foreign trade in MPS Special foreign trade earnings (SFE) Foreign trade price Domestic price Implicit taxes on foreign trade 


  1. Becker, A. S. (1972). National Income Accounting in the USSR. In Treml, V. G. and Hardt, J. P. (Eds.), Soviet Economic Statistics (pp. 69–119) Durham: Duke U. P.Google Scholar
  2. Belkin, V. & Geronimus, A. (Eds.) (1978). Income-Commodity Model and Balance of National Economy. Moscow: Nauka.Google Scholar
  3. BP. (2016). BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2015. London: BP.Google Scholar
  4. Burge, R. & Geary, R. (1957). Balancing of a System of Accounts in Real Terms, Paper presented to the 5th Conference of the International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, De Pietersburg (reproduced in the United Nation (1957)).Google Scholar
  5. Central Intelligence Agency of the USA (CIA). 1983. Soviet Gross National Product in Current Prices, 1960–80: A Research Paper, SOV 83-10037. Washington, DC: CIA.Google Scholar
  6. Central Intelligence Agency of the USA (CIA). 1988. USSR: Sharply Higher Budget Deficits Threaten Perestroyka: A Research Paper, SOV 88-1004U. Washington, DC: CIA.Google Scholar
  7. CMEA Statistics Commission. (1986). Basic Principles of Compilation Methodology of Statistical Balance of National Economy. Moscow.Google Scholar
  8. International Monetary Fund, World Bank, Organization for Economic Co-operation, and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IMF et al.). (1991). A Study of the Soviet Economy, Vol. 1. Washington, DC: IMF.Google Scholar
  9. Interstate Statistical Committee of the CIS. (1998). Soviet National Income Data for 1950–1990. Moscow: CIS.Google Scholar
  10. Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the USA (JEC). (1990). Measures of Soviet Gross National Product in 1982 Prices. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  11. Kuboniwa, M. (2016). Estimating GDP and Foreign Rents of the Oil and Gas Sector in USSR Then and Russia Now, Paper Presented to EACES Conference at Regensburg University, Regensburg, Germany on September 8, 2016 (Chapter 12 of the book).Google Scholar
  12. Kuboniwa, M., Tabata, S. & Ustinova, N. (2005). How Large is the Oil and Gas Sector of Russia? A Research Report. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 46(1), 68–76.Google Scholar
  13. PlanEcon. (1992). PlanEcon Report 8 (11-12-13). Washington, DC: PlanEcon.Google Scholar
  14. Russian Ministry of Economy (MINECON). (1994). USSR Input-Output Tables for 1966, 1972 and 1975–1990. Moscow.Google Scholar
  15. Silver, M. & Mahdavy, K. (1989). The Measurement of a Nation’s Terms of Trade Effect and Real National Disposable Income within a National Accounting Framework. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (Statistics in Society), 152(1), 87–107.Google Scholar
  16. Smirnov, A. (1978). Reflection of Foreign Trade in balance of National. In Belkin, V. & Geronimus, A. (Eds.), pp. 203–221.Google Scholar
  17. The United Nations. (1957). A System of Price and Quantity Indexes for National Accounts, E/CN.3/L.46. New York: The United Nations.Google Scholar
  18. Treml, V. & Kostinsky, B. (1982). Domestic Value of Soviet Foreign Trade: Exports and Imports in the 1972 Input-Output Table, US Dept. of Commerce, Foreign Economic Report, No. 20.Google Scholar
  19. Treml, V. (1989). The Most Recent Input-Output Table: A Milestone in Soviet Statistics. Soviet Economy, 5(4), 341–359.Google Scholar
  20. Treml, V., Gallik, D., Kostinsky, B., & Kruger, K. (1972). The Structure of the Soviet Economy: Analysis and Reconstruction of the 1966 Input-Output Table. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  21. Uegaki, A. (2004). Conversion of Soviet Foreign Trade Statistics to SITC rev.3, Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series, No. 34, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masaaki Kuboniwa
    • 1
  • Shinichiro Tabata
    • 2
  • Yasushi Nakamura
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of International Social Sciences, Yokohama National UniversityYokohamaJapan

Personalised recommendations