Oxidative Stress and Immune Regulation During Chronic Respiratory Diseases

  • Soumya Chatterjee
  • Kaustav Chakraborty
  • Shauryabrota Dalui
  • Arindam Bhattacharyya


Chronic respiratory disease is one of the leading cause of death worldwide. A group of chronic diseases causing abnormalities in lung airway and other architectures of lungs can be defined as chronic respiratory diseases. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung fibrosis, and lung cancer are included in chronic respiratory diseases. The lungs contain different enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants that buffer numerous pro-oxidant infiltrations or generations in lungs. Imbalance in pro- and anti-oxidants cause oxidative stress that is known to be associated with the pathogenesis of different chronic respiratory diseases. Both innate and adaptive immune components have positive and negative regulatory effects on different chronic lung diseases. Lung inflammation is an important phenomenon of all respiratory diseases. Oxidative stress has been found to propagate inflammation. Thus, oxidative stress is linked with immune regulation and significantly associated with the pathogenesis of chronic respiratory disease.


Chronic respiratory disease Asthma Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Pulmonary fibrosis Oxidative stress Immune regulation 



The authors are thankful to the Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta for support and research scholars of the Immunology Laboratory for their generous help and support for completing this research work.

Financial Support

The authors are thankful to the University Grant Commission (UGC) for fellowship support of Soumya Chatterjee (802/ CSIR-UGC NET DEC 2016) and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Support (CSIR) for funding support [No. 27(0323)/17/EMR-II, dated 12/04/2017], Government of India.

Declaration of Conflict of Interest

The authors declare there is no conflict of interest.


  1. Birben E, Sahiner UM, Sackesen C, Erzurum S, Kalayci O (2012) Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense. World Allergy Organ J 5(1):9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bleck B, Tse DB, Curotto de Lafaille MA, Zhang F, Reibman J (2007) Diesel exhaust particle-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells induce dendritic cell maturation and polarization via thymic stromal lymphopoietin. J Clin Immunol 28(2):147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chakraborty K, Chatterjee S, Bhattacharyya A (2017) Modulation of CD11c+ lung dendritic cells in respect to TGF-β in experimental pulmonary fibrosis. Cell Biol Int 41(9):991–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chakraborty K, Chatterjee S, Bhattacharyya A (2018) Impact of Treg on other T cell subsets in progression of fibrosis in experimental lung fibrosis. Tissue Cell 53:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chaplin D (2010) Overview of the immune response. Overview of the immune response. J Allergy Clin Immunol 125(2 Suppl 2):S3–S23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cui T, Schopfer FJ, Zhang J, Chen K, Ichikawa T, Baker PR, Batthyany C, Chacko BK, Feng X, Patel RP, Agarwal A, Freeman BA et al (2006) Nitrated fatty acids: endogenous anti-inflammatory signaling mediators. J Biol Chem 281(47):35686–35698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Delmastro-Greenwood M, Freeman BA, Wendell SG (2013) Redox-dependent anti-inflammatory signaling actions of unsaturated fatty acids. Annu Rev Physiol 76:79–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Demedts IK, Bracke KR, Van Pottelberge G, Testelmans D, Verleden GM, Vermassen FE, Joos GF, Brusselle GG (2007) Accumulation of dendritic cells and increased CCL20 levels in the airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175(10):998–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Donohue JF (2006) Ageing, smoking and oxidative stress. Thorax 61(6):461–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Finn PW, Bigby TD (2009) Innate immunity and asthma. Proc Am Thorac Soc 6(3):260–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Greenfeder S, Umland SP, Cuss FM, Chapman RW, Egan RW (2001) Th2 cytokines and asthma. The role of interleukin-5 in allergic eosinophilic disease. Respir Res 2(2):71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hoenderdos K, Condliffe A (2013) The neutrophil in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 48(5):531–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Holguin F (2013) Oxidative stress in airway diseases. Ann Am Thorac Soc 10(Supplement):S150–S157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative CRD Collaborators (2018) The burden of chronic respiratory diseases and their heterogeneity across the states of India: the global burden of disease study 1990–2016. Lancet Glob Health 6:e1363–e1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jin H, Webb-Robertson BJ, Peterson ES, Tan R, Bigelow DJ, Scholand MB, Hoidal JR, Pounds JG et al (2011) Smoking, COPD, and 3-nitrotyrosine levels of plasma proteins. Environ Health Perspect 119(9):1314–1320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kaarteenaho-Wiik R, Kinnula VL (2004) Distribution of antioxidant enzymes in developing human lung, respiratory distress syndrome, and Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Histochem Cytochem 52(9):1231–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lambrecht BN, Hammad H (2014) Dendritic cell and epithelial cell interactions at the origin of murine asthma. Ann Am Thorac Soc 11(Supplement 5):S236–S243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee I-T, Yang C-M (2013) Inflammatory signalings involved in airway and pulmonary diseases. Mediat Inflamm 2013:12, 791231. Scholar
  19. MacPherson JC, Comhair SA, Erzurum SC, Klein DF, Lipscomb MF, Kavuru MS, Samoszuk MK, Hazen SL (2001) Eosinophils are a major source of nitric oxide-derived oxidants in severe asthma: characterization of pathways available to eosinophils for generating reactive nitrogen species. J Immunol 166:5763–5772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Marsland BJ, Königshoff M, Saglani S, Eickelberg O (2011) Immune system dysregulation in chronic lung disease. Eur Respir J 38:500–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Paul WE (2011) Bridging innate and adaptive immunity. Cell 147. Scholar
  22. Pomerenke A, Lea SR, Herrick S, Lindsay MA, Singh D (2016) Characterization of TLR-induced inflammatory responses in COPD and control lung tissue explants. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 11:2409–2417. Scholar
  23. Pouwels SD, Hesse L, Faiz A, Lubbers J, Bodha PK, Ten Hacken NH, van Oosterhout AJ, Nawijn MC, Heijink IH (2016) Susceptibility for cigarette smoke-induced DAMP release and DAMP-induced inflammation in COPD. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 311(5):L881–L892. Scholar
  24. Rahman I, Adcock IM (2006) Oxidative stress and redox regulation of lung inflammation in COPD. Eur Respir J 28:219–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rosales C (2018) Neutrophil: a cell with many roles in inflammation or several cell types? Front Physiol 9:113. Scholar
  26. Ryter SW, Choi AM (2010) Autophagy in the lung. Proc Am Thorac Soc 7(1):13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Speizer FE, Horton S, Batt J et al (2006) Respiratory diseases of adults. In: Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR et al (eds) Disease control priorities in developing countries, 2nd edn. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, Washington, DC, Chapter 35Google Scholar
  28. Stoll P, Ulrich M, Bratke K, Garbe K, Virchow JC, Lommatzsch M (2015) Imbalance of dendritic cell co-stimulation in COPD. Respir Res 16(1):19. Scholar
  29. Turgut T, Ilhan N, Deveci F, Akpolat N, Erden EŞ, Muz MH (2014) Glutathione and nitrite levels in induced sputum at COPD patients and healthy smokers. J Thorac Dis 6(6):765–771PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soumya Chatterjee
    • 1
  • Kaustav Chakraborty
    • 1
  • Shauryabrota Dalui
    • 1
  • Arindam Bhattacharyya
    • 1
  1. 1.Immunology Laboratory, Department of ZoologyUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations