Advertisement

Shape Rule Types and Spatial Search

  • Rudi StouffsEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 1028)

Abstract

Searching for spatial objects in CAD tools is mostly based on the ability to compare properties of different objects. Instead, the matching mechanism(s) underlying a shape grammar interpreter offers a much wider potential for search, including the emergence of shapes that were unanticipated at the point of specification. This paper provides an overview of different rule types that can be discerned in the context of shape grammars, and explores the impact these have on the ability for search. It specifically considers two alternative matching algorithms, either determining a transformation matrix or an association of graphical elements, the latter complemented with constraining predicates, applying over different data types, e.g., shapes, shapes augmented with attributes, and descriptions, to provide for a wide range of spatial search variations.

Keywords

Spatial search Shape rules Description rules Rule types 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Bui Do Phuong Tung for his development work on the SortalGI library, Bianchi Dy for her development work on the SortalGI plug-in for Grasshopper, and Dan Hou for her inputs regarding predicates.

References

  1. 1.
    Stiny, G.: Introduction to shape and shape grammars. Environ. Plann. B: Plann. Des. 7, 343–351 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akin, Ö.: A formalism for problem restructuring and resolution in design. Environ. Plann. B: Plann. Des. 13, 223–232 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Woodbury, R.F.: Searching for designs: paradigm and practice. Build. Environ. 26, 61–73 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wortmann, T., Stouffs, R.: Algorithmic complexity of shape grammar implementation. Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf. 32, 138–146 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stiny, G., Mitchell, W.J.: The Palladian grammar. Environ. Plann. B: Plann. Des. 5, 5–18 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stiny, G.: Ice-ray: a note on Chinese lattice designs. Environ. Plann. B: Plann. Des. 4, 89–98 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Krishnamurti, R.: The maximal representation of a shape. Environ. Plann. B: Plann. Des. 19, 267–288 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Krishnamurti, R.: The arithmetic of maximal planes. Environ. Plann. B: Plann. Des. 19, 431–464 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krishnamurti, R., Stouffs, R.: The boundary of a shape and its classification. J. Des. Res. 4, 75–101 (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stouffs, R., Krishnamurti, R.: Algorithms for classifying and constructing the boundary of a shape. J. Des. Res. 5, 54–95 (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jowers, I., Earl, C.: The construction of curved shapes. Environ. Plann. B: Plann. Des. 37, 42–58 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jowers, I., Earl, C.: Implementation of curved shape grammars. Environ. Plann. B: Plann. Des. 38, 616–635 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stiny, G.: Weights. Environ. Plann. B: Plann. Des. 19, 413–430 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Knight, T.W.: Color grammars: designing with lines and colors. Environ. Plann. B: Plann. Des. 16, 417–449 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Knight, T.W.: Color grammars: the representation of form and color in design. Leonardo 26, 117–124 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stiny, G.: A note on the description of designs. Environ. Plann. B: Plann. Des. 8, 257–267 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Beirão, J.N.: CItyMaker: designing grammars for urban design. Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands (2012)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stouffs, R., Krishnamurti, R.: Sortal grammars as a framework for exploring grammar formalisms. In: Burry, M., Datta, S., Dawson, A., Rollo, J. (eds.) Mathematics and Design 2001, pp. 261–269. Deakin University, Geelong (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stouffs, R.: On shape grammars, color grammars and sortal grammars. In: Achten, H., Pavlicek, J., Hulin, J., Matejovska, D. (eds.) Digital Physicality, vol. 1, pp. 479–487. eCAADe, Brussels (2012)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stouffs, R.: Implementation issues of parallel shape grammars. Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf. 32, 162–176 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stouffs, R.: Constructing design representations using a sortal approach. Adv. Eng. Inform. 22, 71–89 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dy, B., Stouffs, R.: Combining geometries and descriptions: a shape grammar plug-in for Grasshopper. In: Kepczynska-Walczak, A., Bialkowski, S. (eds.) Computing for a Better Tomorrow, vol. 2, pp. 509–518. eCAADe, Brussels (2018)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Krishnamurti, R., Earl, C.F.: Shape recognition in three dimensions. Environ. Plann. B: Plann. Des. 19, 585–603 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Krishnamurti, R., Stouffs, R.: Spatial grammars: motivation, comparison and new results. In: Flemming, U., Van Wyk, S. (eds.) CAAD Futures ’93, pp. 57–74. North-Holland, Amsterdam (1993)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Woodbury, R.: An introduction to shape schema grammars. Environ. Plann. B: Plann. Des. 43, 152–183 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Grasl, T., Economou, A.: From topologies to shapes: parametric shape grammars implemented by graphs. Environ. Plann. B: Plann. Des. 40, 905–922 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wortmann, T.: Representing shapes as graphs. Master’s thesis, MIT, Cambridge (2013)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yue, K., Krishnamurti, R.: Tractable shape grammars. Environ. Plann. B: Plann. Des. 40, 576–594 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Strobbe, T., Pauwels, P., Verstraeten, R., De Meyer, R., Van Campenhout, J.: Toward a visual approach in the exploration of shape grammars. Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf. 29, 503–521 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liew, H.: SGML: a meta-language for shape grammar. Ph.D. thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA (2004)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stouffs, R., Hou, D.: The complexity of formulating design(ing) grammars. In: Fioravanti, A., et al. (eds.) Shock! Sharing of Computable Knowledge, vol. 2, pp. 443–452. eCAADe, Brussels (2017)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stouffs, R.: Description grammars: a general notation. Environ. Plann. B: Urban Anal. City Sci. 45, 106–123 (2018)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stouffs, R.: Description grammars: precedents revisited. Environ. Plann. B: Urban Anal. City Sci. 45, 124–144 (2018)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations