Advertisement

Encoding Design Process Using Interactive Data Visualization

  • Naghmi ShireenEmail author
  • Halil ErhanEmail author
  • Robert WoodburyEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 1028)

Abstract

The existing research on design space exploration favors the exploration of multiple parallel designs, however the act of exploring a design space is still to be integrated in the design of new digital media. We conducted an experiment to understand how designers navigate through large numbers of design alternatives generated from parametric models. We analyzed the data with a purpose-built visualization tool. We observed that participants changed the task environment and took design actions, frequently combining these into action combinations. Five tasks emerged from our analysis: Criteria Building, Criteria Testing, Criteria Applying, Reflection and (Re)Setting. From our analysis, we suggest several features for future systems for interacting with design alternatives.

Keywords

Design space exploration Design alternatives Coding protocol and analysis Creativity support tools Interfaces for design galleries 

References

  1. 1.
    Akin, O.: Variants in design cognition. In: Design Knowing and Learning: Cognition in Design Education, pp. 1–17 (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blackwell, A.F., Green, T.R.G.: Notational systems - the cognitive dimensions of notations framework. In: Carroll, J.M. (ed.) HCI Models, Theories and Frameworks: Toward a multidisciplinary science, pp. 103–134. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cross, N.: Design cognition: results from protocol and other empirical studies of design activity. In: Eastman, C., McCracken, M., Newstetter, M. (eds.) Design Knowing and Learning: Cognition in Design Education, pp. 79–103. Elsevier Science (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chouchoulas, O., Day, A.: Design exploration using a shape grammar with a genetic algorithm. Open House Int. 32(2), 25–35 (2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dow, S., Glassco, A., Kass, J., Schwarz, M., Schwartz, D., Klemmer, S.: Parallel prototyping leads to better design results, more divergence, and increased self-efficacy. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. 17(4), Article no. 18 (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Drucker, S.M., Petschnigg, G., Agrawala, M.: Comparing and managing multiple versions of slide presentations. In: Proceedings of the 19th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST 2006), pp. 47–56. ACM, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Erhan, H., Wang, I., Shireen, N.: Harnessing design space: a similarity-based exploration method for generative design. Int. J. Archit. Comput. 13(2), 217–236 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hartmann, B., Yu, L., Allison, A., Yang, Y., Klemmer. S.R.: Design as exploration: creating interface alternatives through parallel authoring and runtime tuning. In: Proceedings on UIST 2008, pp. 91–100. ACM, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kirsh, D.: The intelligent use of space. Artif. Intell. 73(1–2), 31–68 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kolarić, S., Woodbury, R., Erhan, H.: CAMBRIA: a tool for managing multiple design alternatives. In: Proceedings of the 2014 Companion Publication on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS Companion 2014), pp. 81–84. ACM, New York (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1145/2598784.2602788
  11. 11.
    Lunzer, A., Hornbæk, K.: Subjunctive interfaces: extending applications to support parallel setup, viewing and control of alternative scenarios. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. 14(4), 1–44 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lupton, E.: Graphic Design Thinking Beyond Brainstorming. Princeton Press, Princeton (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marks, J., et al.: Design galleries: a general approach to setting parameters for computer graphics and animation. In: Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH 1997), pp. 389–400. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., New York (1997)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Matejka, J., Glueck, M., Bradner, E., Hashemi, A., Grossman, T., Fitzmaurice, G.: Dream lens. In: Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2018, April 2018, pp. 1–12 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1145/3173574.3173943
  15. 15.
    Ritchie, D., Kejriwal, A., Klemmer, S.: d. tour: style-based exploration of design example galleries. In: Proceedings of the 24th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, pp. 165–174 (2011)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shireen, N., Erhan, H., Woodbury, R., Wang, I.: Making sense of design space. In: Çağdaş, G., Özkar, M., Gül, L.F., Gürer, E. (eds.) CAADFutures 2017. CCIS, vol. 724, pp. 191–211. Springer, Singapore (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-5197-5_11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shneiderman, B.: Creating creativity: user interfaces for supporting innovation. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. (TOCHI) 7(1), 114–138 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Simon, H.A., Newell, A.: Human problem solving: the state of the theory in 1970. Am. Psychol. 26(2), 145–159 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smith, B., Xu, A., Bailey, B.: Improving interaction models for generating and managing alternative ideas during early design work. In: Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2010 (GI 2010), pp. 121–128. Canadian Information Processing Society, Toronto, Canada (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Terry, M., Mynatt, E.D., Nakakoji, K., Yamamoto, Y.: Variation in element and action: supporting simultaneous development of alternative solutions. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2004), pp. 711–718. ACM, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tohidi, M., Buxton, W., Baecker, R., Sellen, A.: Getting the right design and the design right. In: Grinter, R., Rodden, T., Aoki, P., Cutrell, E., Jeffries, R., Olson, G. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2006), pp. 1243–1252. ACM, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Toomim, M., Begel, A., Graham, S.L.: Managing duplicated code with linked editing. In: Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages - Human Centric Computing (VLHCC 2004), pp. 173–180. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA (2004)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Woodbury, R., Mohiuddin, A., Cichy, M., Mueller, V.: Interactive design galleries: a general approach to interacting with design alternatives. Des. Stud. 52, 40–72 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Woodbury, R.F.: Elements of Parametric Design. Routledge, London (2010)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Woodbury, R.F., Burrow, A.L.: Whither design space? AIEDAM 20(2), 63–82 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Xu, K., Zhang, H., Cohen-Or, D., Chen, B.: Fit and diverse: set evolution for inspiring 3D shape galleries. ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–10 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zaman, L., et al.: GEM-NI: a system for creating and managing alternatives in generative design. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Seoul, Republic of Korea, pp. 1201–1210. ACM, New York (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1145/2702123.2702398

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Simon Fraser UniversitySurreyCanada

Personalised recommendations