Basic Principles of Stereo Fundus Photography

  • Hanyi MinEmail author
  • Di Chen
  • Bo Wan


As early as in sixteenth century, filter lens had been used to draw a certain difference in the color of the image for the eyes to produce stereovision. Wheatstone invented the reflecting mirror stereoscope (Fig. 1.1) in 1838, just like the synoptophore, to prove stereovision is based upon the fusion images of both eyes. In 1849, refraction stereoscope (Fig. 1.2) was developed by Brewster, who put two +5D lenses in front of left and right pictures and made these two lenses outwardly eccentric to produce prism effect separately for both eyes. This method can be taken under different vergence distances and the distance between the lens and the pictures can be adjusted to match the accommodation needs.


  1. 1.
    Allen L. Ocular fundus photography: suggestions for achieving consistently good pictures and instructions for stereoscopic photography. Am J Ophthalmol. 1964;57:13–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tyleer ME. Stereo fundus photography: principles and technique. J Ophthalmic Photogr. 1996;18:68–89.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tyleer ME. Stereo fundus photography: principles and techniques. In: Saine PJ, Tyler ME, editors. Ophthalmic photography: retinal photography, angiography, and electronic imaging. 2nd ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2002. p. 118–35.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rudnisky CJ, Tennant MT, de Leon AR. Benefits of stereopsis when identifying clinically significant macular edema via teleophthalmology. Can J Ophthalmol. 2006;41:727–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Somani R, Tennan M, Rudnisky C, et al. Comparison of stereoscopic digital imaging and slide film photography in the identification of macular degeneration. Can J Ophthalmol. 2005;40:293–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li HK, Hubbard LD, Danis RP, et al. Monoscopic versus stereoscopic retinal photography for grading diabetic retinopathy severity. Retina. 2010;51:3184–92.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gass JDM. Stereo atlas of macular diseases: diagnosis and treatment. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 1997.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stone RA, et al. Utility of digital stereo images for optic disc evaluation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:5667–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rudnisky CJ, Tennant MT, Weis E. Web-based grading of compressed stereoscopic digital photography versus standard slide film photography for the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:1748–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sanborn GE, Wroblewski JJ. Evaluation of a combination digital retinal camera with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) that might be used for the screening of diabetic retinopathy with telemedicine: a pilot study. J Diabetes Complications. 2018;11:1046–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hubbard LD, Danis RP, Neider MW. Brightness, contrast, and color balance of digital versus film retinal images in the age-related eye disease study 2. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:3269–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Agarwal A. Gass atlas of macular diseases. 5th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier; 2012. p. 1–16.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House, PR of China 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyPeking Union Medical College Hospital and Chinese Academy of Medical ScienceBeijingP.R. China
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyTongxian Luhe HospitalBeijingP.R. China

Personalised recommendations