Advertisement

Diversity and Ecology of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in the Western Ghats

  • Kandikere R. Sridhar
  • Namera C. Karun
Chapter

Abstract

Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi being obligate mutualists of roots of several vascular plants have a major role in diversity, biogeography, erosion prevention, and biogeochemical cycles. Recent findings depict that the EM fungi have multifunctional roles in ecosystem processes leading to valuable ecosystem services. They are the main players in reclamation of degraded ecosystems based on their ability to develop stress tolerance, nutrient acquirement, and bioremediation. Although the Western Ghats has been recognized as an important hotspot of biodiversity in the tropics, studies on the EM fungi are fairly meager. This review is an attempt to consolidate the research on the EM fungi in different parts of the Western Ghats addressing their diversity, distribution, and ecology. A total of 148 species (34 genera) of EM fungi has been known from the Western Ghats. Inocybe is the dominant genus (36 spp.) followed by other genera Russula (31 spp.) and Amanita (13 spp.). The host trees that supported the EM fungi consist of 60 species (40 genera). Vateria indica showed the highest EM fungi (69 spp.) followed by Hopea ponga (50 spp.), Hopea parviflora (48 spp.), and Diospyros malabarica (37 spp.). Eight tree species of Dipterocarpaceae supported up to 77% of EM fungi, while 15 exotic trees supported only 20%. Up to 30 new EM fungi are known from the Western Ghats. Importance and association of EM fungi with hosts and future research directions are emphasized.

Keywords

Mushrooms Mutualism Tree species Dipterocarpaceae Exotic trees New species Evolution Conservation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Mangalore University for their support in carrying out macrofungal research in the Western Ghats in the Department of Biosciences. The award of UGC-BSR Faculty Fellowship by the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, is highly appreciated.

References

  1. Agerer R (2006) Fungal relationships and structural identity of their ectomycorrhizae. Mycol Prog 5:67–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appanah S, Turnbull JM (1998) A review of dipterocarps: taxonomy, ecology and sylviculture. Centre for International Forestry Research, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  3. Aravindakshan D, Manimohan P (2015) Mycenas of Kerala. SporePrint Books, CalicutGoogle Scholar
  4. Bâ AM, Diédhiou AH, Prin Y et al (2010) Management of ectomycorrhizal symbionts associated to useful exotic tree species to improve reforestation performances in tropical Africa. Ann For Sci 67:301.  https://doi.org/10.1051/forest/2009108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berbee ML, Taylor JW (2001) Fungal molecular evolution: gene trees and geologic time. Mycota 7B:229–245Google Scholar
  6. Berbee ML, Taylor JW (2010) Dating the molecular clock in fungi – how close are we? Fungal Biol Rev 24:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhagwat S, Kushalappa CG, Williams P, Brown N (2005) The role of informal protected areas in maintaining biodiversity in the Western Ghats of India. Ecol Soc 10:8. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/iss1/art8/CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhatt M, Mistri P, Joshi I et al (2018) Molecular survey of basidiomycetes and divergence time estimation: an Indian perspective. PLoS One 13:e0197306PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhavanidevi S (1995) Mushroom flora of Kerala. In: Chadha KL, Sharma SR (eds) Advances in hortriculture – mushrooms, vol 13. Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 277–316Google Scholar
  10. Bhosle S, Ranadive K, Bapat G et al (2010) Taxonomy and diversity of Ganoderma from the Western parts of Maharashtra (India). Mycosphere 1:249–262Google Scholar
  11. Boa ER (2004) Wild edible fungi: a global overview of their use and importance to people. Food and Agricultural Organization, RomeGoogle Scholar
  12. Bonfante P, Genre A (2008) Plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: an evolutionary-developmental perspective. Tr Plant Sci 13:492–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Borkar P, Doshi A, Navathe S (2015) Mushroom diversity of Konkan region of Maharashtra, India. J Threat Taxa 7:7625–7640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brearley FQ (2012) Ectomycorrhizal associations of the Dipterocarpaceae. Biotropica 44:637–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown N, Bhagwat S, Watkinson S (2006) Macrofungal diversity in fragmented and disturbed forests of the Western Ghats of India. J Appl Ecol 43:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cannon PF, Kirk PM (2007) Fungal families of the world. CAB International, WallingfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Das K, Miller SL, Sharma JR, Hemenway J (2008) Two new species of Russula from Western Ghats in India. Ind J For 31:473–478Google Scholar
  18. De Miguel AM, Águeda B, Sánchez S, Parladé J (2014) Ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity and community structure with natural and cultivated truffle hosts: applying lessons learned to future truffle culture. Mycorrhiza 24:5–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dickie IA, Nuñez MA, Pringle et al (2016) Towards management of invasive ectomycorrhizal fungi. Biol Invasions 18:3383–3395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fangfuk W, Petchang R, To-Anun C et al (2010) Identification of Japanese Astraeus, based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses. Mycoscience 51:291–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Farjon A (2005) Pines: drawings and descriptions of the genus Pinus, 2nd edn. Brill, BostonGoogle Scholar
  22. Farook VA, Khan SS, Manimohan P (2013) A checklist of agarics (gilled mushrooms) of Kerala state, India. Mycosphere 4:97–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Floudas D, Binder M, Riley R et al (2012) The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic lignin decomposition constructed from 31fungal genomes. Science 336:1715–1719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ghate SD, Sridhar KR (2016a) Spatiotemporal diversity of macrofungi in the coastal sand dunes of southwestern India. Mycosphere 7:458–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ghate SD, Sridhar KR (2016b) Contribution to the knowledge on macrofungi in mangroves of the Southwest India. Pl Biosys 150:977–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ghate SD, Sridhar KR (2017) Bioactive potential of Lentinus squarrosulus and Termitomyces clypeatus from the southwestern region of India. Ind J Nat Prod Res 8:120–131Google Scholar
  27. Greeshma AA, Sridhar KR, Pavithra M (2015) Macrofungi in the lateritic scrub jungles of southwestern India. J Threat Taxa 7:7812–7820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Greeshma AA, Sridhar KR, Pavithra M, Ghate SD (2016) Impact of fire on the macrofungal diversity of scrub jungles of Southwest India. Mycology 7:15–28PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Greeshma AA, Sridhar KR, Pavithra M (2018a) Nutritional perspectives of an ectomycorrhizal edible mushroom Amanita of the southwestern India. Cur Res Environ Appl Mycol 8:54–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Greeshma AA, Sridhar KR, Pavithra M (2018b) Functional attributes of ethnically edible ectomycorrhizal wild mushroom Amanita in India. Microb Biosys 3:34–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hawksworth DL (1991) The fungal dimension of biodiversity: magnitude, significance, and conservation. Mycol Res 95:641–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hawksworth DL, Lücking R (2017) Fungal diversity revisited: 2.2 to 3.8 million species. Microbiol Spectr 5:FUNK-0052-2016Google Scholar
  33. Hawkswroth DL (2019) The macrofungal resource: extent, current utilization, future prospects and challenges. In: Sridhar KR, Deshmukh SK (eds) Advances of macrofungi: diversity, ecology and biotechnology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  34. Hibbett DS, Matheny PB (2009) The relative ages of ectomycorrhizal mushrooms and their plant hosts estimated using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses. BMC Biol 7:13.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7007-7-13CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Hibbett DS, Grimaldi D, Donoghue MJ (1997) Fossil mushrooms from Miocene and cretaceous ambers and the evolution of homobasidiomycetes. Am J Bot 84:981–991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hibbett DS, Gilbert L-B, Donoghue MJ (2000) Evolutionary instability of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in basidiomycetes. Nature 407:506–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Karun NC, Sridhar KR (2013) Occurrence and distribution of Termitomyces (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) in the Western Ghats and on the west coast of India. Czech Mycol 65:233–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Karun NC, Sridhar KR (2014a) A preliminary study on macrofungal diversity in an arboretum and three plantations of the southwest coast of India. Cur Res Environ Appl Mycol 4:173–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Karun NC, Sridhar KR (2014b) Geasters in the Western Ghats and west coast of India. Acta Mycol 49:207–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Karun NC, Sridhar KR (2015a) Elephant dung-inhabiting macrofungi in the Western Ghats. Cur Res Environ Appl Mycol 5:60–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Karun NC, Sridhar KR (2015b) Xylaria complex in the South Western India. Pl Pathol Q 5:83–96Google Scholar
  42. Karun NC, Sridhar KR (2016) Spatial and temporal diversity of macrofungi in the Western Ghat forests of India. Appl Ecol Environ Res 14:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Karun NC, Sridhar KR (2017) Edible wild mushrooms in the Western Ghats: data on the ethnic knowledge. Data Brief 14:320–328PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Karun NC, Sridhar KR, Appaiah KAA (2014) Diversity and distribution of macrofungi in Kodagu region (Western Ghats) – a preliminary account. In: Pullaiah T, Karuppusamy S, Rani SS (eds) Biodiversity in India, vol 7. Regency Publications, New Delhi, pp 73–96Google Scholar
  45. Karun NC, Sridhar KR, Niveditha VR, Ghate SD (2016) Bioactive potential of two wild edible mushrooms of the Western Ghats of India. In: Watson RR, Preedy VR (eds) Fruits, vegetables, and herbs: bioactive foods in health promotion. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 344–362Google Scholar
  46. Karun NC, Sridhar KR, Ambarish CN, Pavithra M, Greeshma AA, Ghate SD (2017) Health perspectives of medicinal macrofungi of Southwestern India. In: Watson RR, Zibadi S (eds) Handbook of nutrition in heart health. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp 533–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Karun NC, Bhagya B, Sridhar KR (2018a) Biodiversity of macrofungi in Yenepoya campus, Southwest India. Microb Biosyst 3:1–11Google Scholar
  48. Karun NC, Sridhar KR, Ambarish CN (2018b) Nutritional potential of Auricularia auricula-judae and Termitomyces umkowaan – the wild edible mushrooms of southwestern India. In: Gupta VK, Treichel H, Shapaval V et al (eds) Microbial functional foods and nutraceuticals. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 281–301Google Scholar
  49. Kennedy P (2010) Ectomycorrhizal fungi and interspecific competition: species interactions, community structure, coexistence mechanisms and future directions. New Phytol 187:895–910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kirk P, Cannon P, Minter D, Stalpers J (2008) Dictionary of the Fungi, 10th edn. CABI, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  51. Kumar J, Atri NS (2018) Studies on ectomycorrhiza: an appraisal. Bot Rev 84:108–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Latha KPD, Manimohan P (2015) Inocybe griseorubida, a new species of Pseudosperma clade from tropical India. Phytotaxa 221:166–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Latha KPD, Manimohan P (2017) Inocybes of Kerala. SporePrint Books, CalicutGoogle Scholar
  54. Lee SS (1998) Root symbiosis and nutrition. In: Appanah S, Turnbull JM (eds) A review of dipterocarps taxonomy, ecology and Silviculture. Centre for International Forestry Research, Bogor, pp 99–114Google Scholar
  55. Leelavathy KM, Ganesh PN (2000) Polypores of Kerala. Daya Publishing House, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  56. Leelavathy KM, Manimohan P, Arnolds EJM (2006) Hygrocybe in Kerala state, India. Persoonia 19:101–151Google Scholar
  57. Lefevre C, Hall IR (2001) The global status of truffle cultivation. In: Mehlenbacher SA (ed) Fifth international congress on hazelnut, Corvallis. Acta Hort 556:513–520Google Scholar
  58. LePage BA (2003) The evolution, biogeography and palaeoecology of the Pinaceae based on fossil and extant representatives. Acta Hortic 615:29–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. LePage BA, Currah RS, Stockey RA, Rothwell GW (1997) Fossil ectomycorrhizae from the middle Eocene. Am J Bot 84:410–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Manimohan P, Latha KPD (2011) Observations on two rarely collected species of Russula. Mycotaxon 116:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Manimohan P, Thomas KA, Nisha VS (2007) Agarics on elephant dung in Kerala state, India. Mycotaxon 99:147–157Google Scholar
  62. Manoharachary C, Sridhar KR, Singh R et al (2005) Fungal biodiversity: distribution, conservation and prospecting of fungi from India. Cur Sci 89:58–71Google Scholar
  63. Marcel G, van der Heijden A, Martin FM et al (2015) Mycorrhizal ecology and evolution: the past, the present, and the future. New Phytol 205:1406–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Miguel AMD, Águeda B, Sánchez S, Parladé J (2014) Ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity and community structure with natural and cultivated truffle hosts: applying lessons learned to future truffle culture. Mycorrhiza 24:5–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mohan V (2008) Diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal flora in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR) area, Nilgiri Hills, Tamil Nadu. ENVIS Cent Newsl 6:1–6Google Scholar
  66. Mohanan C (2011) Macrofungi of Kerala. Kerala Forest Research Institute, PeechiGoogle Scholar
  67. Mohanan C (2014) Macrofungal diversity in the Western Ghats, Kerala, India; members of Russulaceae. J Threat Taxa 6:5636–5648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mueller GM, Schmit JP, Leacock PR et al (2007) Global diversity and distribution of macrofungi. Biodivers Conserv 16:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Murata M, Kanetani S, Nara K (2017) Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in endangered Pinus amamiana forests. PLoS One 12:e0189957PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG et al (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:853–858CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Natarajan K (1995) Mushroom flora of South India (except Kerala). In: Chadha KL, Sharma SR (eds) Advances in horticulture. Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 381–397Google Scholar
  72. Natarajan K, Raman N (1983) South Indian Agaricales 20 – some mycorrhizal species. Kavaka 11:59–66Google Scholar
  73. Natarajan K, Senthilarasu G (2004) Diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Western Ghats of South India. In: Reddy MS, Khanna S (eds) Biotechnological approaches for sustainable development. Allied Publishers Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, pp 65–67Google Scholar
  74. Natarajan K, Narayanan K, Ravindran C, Kumaresan V (2005a) Biodiversity of agarics from Nilgiri biosphere reserve, Western Ghats, India. Cur Sci 88:1890–1893Google Scholar
  75. Natarajan K, Senthilarasu G, Kumaresan V, Riviere T (2005b) Diversity in ectomycorrhizal fungi of a dipterocarp forest in Western Ghats. Cur Sci 88:1893–1895Google Scholar
  76. Pavithra M, Greeshma AA, Karun NC, Sridhar KR (2015) Observations on the Astraeus spp. of Southwestern India. Mycosphere 6:421–432Google Scholar
  77. Pavithra M, Sridhar KR, Greeshma AA, Tomita-Yokotani K (2016a) Bioactive potential of the wild mushroom Astraeus hygrometricus in the Southwest India. Mycology 7:191–202PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pavithra M, Sridhar KR, Greeshma AA, Karun NC (2016b) Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of macrofungi in the protected forests of Southwestern India. Int J Agric Technol 12:105–124Google Scholar
  79. Pavithra M, Sridhar KR, Greeshma AA (2017a) Macrofungi in botanical gardens of the southwestern India. J Threat Taxa 9:9962–9970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pavithra M, Sridhar KR, Greeshma AA (2017b) Functional properties of edible mushroom Astraeus hygrometricus. Kavaka 49:22–27Google Scholar
  81. Peintner U, Moser MM, Thomas KA, Manimohan P (2003) First records of ectomycorrhizal Cortinarius species (Agaricales, Basidiomycetes) from tropical India and their phylogenetic position based on rDNA ITS sequences. Mycol Res 107:485–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Phosri C, Watling R, Martín MP, Whalley AJS (2004) The genus Astraeus in Thailand. Mycotaxon 89:453–463Google Scholar
  83. Pradeep CK, Vrinda KB (2010) Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity in three different forest types and their association with endemic, indigenous and exotic species in the Western Ghat forests of Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala. J Mycopathol Res 48:279–289Google Scholar
  84. Pradeep CK, Vrinda KB, Varghese SP, Kumar TKA (2015) A new species of Phylloporus (Agaricales, Boletaeae) from India. Phytotaxa 226:269–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ranadive KR, Vaidya JG, Jite PK et al (2011) Checklist of Aphyllophorales from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra state, India. Mycosphere 2:91–114Google Scholar
  86. Reddy MS, Singla S, Natarajan K, Senthilarasu G (2005) Pisolithus indicus, a new species of ectomycorrhizal fungus associated with dipterocarps in India. Mycologia 97:838–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rinaldi AC, Comandini O, Kuyper TW (2008) Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: separating the wheat from the chaff. Fungal Ecol 33:1–45Google Scholar
  88. Riviere TR, Diedhiou AG, Diabate M et al (2007) Genetic diversity of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes from African and Indian tropical rain forests. Mycorrhiza 17:145–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sathe AV, Daniel J (1980) Agaricales (mushrooms) of Kerala State. In: Sathe AV (ed) Agaricales (mushrooms) of South West India, Monograph # 1, Part # 3. Maharashtra Association of Cultivation of Science, Pune, pp 75–108Google Scholar
  90. Sathe AV, Deshpande SD (1980) Agaricales (mushrooms) of Maharashtra State. In: Sathe AV (ed) Agaricales (mushrooms) of South West India, Monograph # 1, Part # 1. Maharashtra Association of Cultivation of Science, Pune, pp 1–66Google Scholar
  91. Senthilarasu G (2014) Diversity of agarics (gilled mushrooms) of Maharashtra, India. Cur Res Environ Appl Mycol 4:58–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Senthilarasu G (2015) The lentinoid fungi (Lentinus and Panus) from Western Ghats, India. IMA Fungus 6:119–128PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Senthilarasu G, Kumaresan V (2016) Diversity of agaric mycota of Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Curr Res Environ Appl Mycol 6(1):75–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sharma R (2009) Ectomycorrhizal mushrooms in Indian tropical forests. Biodiversity 10:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sharma R (2017) Ectomycorrhizal mushrooms: their diversity, ecology and practical applications. In: Verma A, Prasad R, Tuteja N (ed) Mycorrhiza – function, diversity, state of the art. Springer International Publishing, pp 99–131Google Scholar
  96. Smith SE, Read DJ (2008) Mycorrhizal symbiosis, 3rd edn. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  97. Sudheep NM, Sridhar KR (2014) Nutritional composition of two wild mushrooms consumed by tribals of the Western Ghats of India. Mycology 5:64–72PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Swapna S, Abrar S, Krishnappa M (2008) Diversity of macrofungi in semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forest of Shimoga District, Karnataka, India. J Mycol Pl Pathol 38:21–26Google Scholar
  99. Tedersoo L, May TW, Smith ME (2010) Ectomycorrhizal lifestyle in fungi: global diversity, distribution, and evolution of phylogenetic lineages. Mycorrhiza 20:217–263PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tedersoo L, Bahram M, Toots M et al (2012) Towards global patterns in the diversity and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mol Ecol 21:4160–4170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Thiribhuvanamala G, Prakasam V, Chandrasekar G et al (2011) Biodiversity, conservation and utilisation of mushroom flora from the Western Ghats region of India. In: Savoie J-M, Foulongne-Oriol M, Largeteau M, Barroso G (eds) Mushroom biology and mushroom products, vol 1. INRA, France, pp 155–164Google Scholar
  102. Thomas KA, Peintner U, Moser MM, Manimohan P (2002) Anamika, a new mycorrhizal genus of Cortinariaceae from India and its phylogenetic position based on ITS and LSU sequences. Mycol Res 106:245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Vasco-Palacios AM, Hernandez J, Peñuela_Mora MC et al (2018) Ectomycorrhizal fungi diversity in a white sand forest in western Amazonia. Fungal Ecol 31:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Vrinda KB, Pradeep CK, Abraham TK (1997) A new species of Russula from Kerala, India. Mycotaxon 52:389–393Google Scholar
  105. Wang Y, Hall IR (2004) Edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms: challenges and achievements. Can J Bot 82:1063–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wolfe BE, Pringle A (2012) Geographically structured host specificity is caused by the range expansions and host shifts of a symbiotic fungus. ISME J 6:745–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kandikere R. Sridhar
    • 1
  • Namera C. Karun
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiosciencesMangalore UniversityMangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations