Rubber-like materials are usually isotropic. It is possible, of course, to strengthen them by embedding fibers in prescribed directions and creating the fiber-reinforced composites. Nature does so with the soft biological tissues which usually consist of an isotropic matrix with the embedded and oriented collagen fibers. The collagen fibers are aligned with the axes of ligaments and tendons forming one characteristic direction or they can form two and more characteristic directions in the case of blood vessels, heart etc.
- Dorfmann L, Ogden RW (eds) (2015) Nonlinear mechanics of soft fibrous materials. Springer, WienGoogle Scholar
- Fung YC (1993) Biomechanics: mechanical properties of living tissues. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Holzapfel GA, Ogden RW (eds) (2009) Biomechanical modeling at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Springer, WienGoogle Scholar
- Spencer AJM (1984) Continuum theory of the mechanics of fiber-reinforced composites. Springer, ViennaGoogle Scholar