Advertisement

Trends in Phytomanagement of Aquatic Ecosystems and Evaluation of Factors Affecting Removal of Inorganic Pollutants from Water Bodies

  • Abdul Barey Shah
  • Rana Pratap Singh
  • U. N. Rai
Chapter

Abstract

The deterioration of water quality due to the increasing unsustainable developmental activities like production processes carried at high energy inputs, discharge of untreated municipal/industrial wastewater coupled with runoff from agricultural fields led to build up of toxic inorganic contaminants including heavy metals and Reactive Nitrogenous Species (RNS) into the water bodies. Intake of water contaminated with heavy metals and nitrogenous ions (nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) by humans and other life forms may lead to disruption of various metabolic activities, leading to cardiovascular, neurological, renal disorders. Different technologies and methods are being employed to remediate these pollutants from water. Phytoremediation is an economical, ecofriendly and aesthetically pleasing technology that makes the use of plant systems to remove and/or detoxify pollutants from the environment. The efficiency of the decontamination or remediation function of aquatic macrophytes depends on several factors like water physico-chemistry, plant physiology, plant genotype, sediment geochemistry and nature of contaminant or pollutant. Also water remediation by macrophytes can be significantly improved by appropriate selection of plant species which is built on the type of substances to be removed, the topography of the area, microclimate, hydrological conditions, accumulation capacities of the plant species etc. This write-up provides some insights in phytoremediation of inorganic pollutants and factors affecting their removal.

Keywords

Constructed wetlands Heavy metals Phytoremediation Water treatment Floating wetlands 

References

  1. Abou-Elela, S. I., Golinielli, G., Abou-Taleb, E. M., & Hellal, M. S. (2013). Municipal wastewater treatment in horizontal and vertical flows constructed wetlands. Ecological Engineering, 61, 460–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adewuyi, G. O., Etchie, A. T., & Etchie TO. (2014). Health risk assessment of exposure to metals in a Nigerian water supply. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 20, 29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agarwal, R., Kumar, R., & Behari, J. R. (2007). Mercury and lead content fish species from the river Gomti, Lucknow, India, as biomarker of contamination. Bulletin of Environment Contamination and Toxicology, 78, 118–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agca, N., Karanlık, S., & Odemiş, B. (2014). Assessment of ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, and heavy metal pollution in groundwater from Amik Plain, southern Turkey. Environment Monitoring Assessment.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-3829-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ali, H., Khan, E., & Sajad, M. A. (2013). Phytoremediation of heavy metals-concepts and applications. Chemosphere, 9, 869–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alonso, A., & Camargo, J. A. (2009). Effects of pulse duration and post-exposure period on the nitrite toxicity to a freshwater amphipod. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 72(7), 2005–2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anning, A. K., Korsah, P. E., & Addo-Fordjour, P. (2013). Phytoremediation of wastewater with Limnocharis flava, Thalia geniculata and Typha latifolia in constructed wetlands. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 15(5), 452–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arias, M. F. C., Bru, L. V., Rico, D. P., & Galvan, P. V. (2011). Kinetic behaviour of sodium and boron in brackish water membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 368, 86–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Basile, A., Sorbo, S., Conte, B., Cobianchi, R. C., Trinchella, F., Capasso, C., & Carginale, V. (2012). Toxicity, accumulation, and removal of heavy metals by three aquatic macrophytes. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 14(4), 374–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauddh, K., & Singh, R. P. (2012). Cadmium tolerance and its phytoremediation by two oil yielding plants Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) from the contaminated soil. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 14(8), 772–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bellos, D., & Sawidis, T. (2005). Chemical pollution monitoring of the River Pinios (Thessalia—Greece). Journal of Environmental Management, 76, 282–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bindu, T., Sylas, V. P., Mahesh, M., Rakesh, P. S., & Ramasamy, E. V. (2008). Pollutant removal from domestic wastewater with Taro (Colocasia esculenta) planted in a subsurface flow system. Ecological Engineering, 33(1), 68–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Campbell, C., Greenberg, R., Mankikar, D., & Ross, R. D. (2016). A case study of environmental injustice: The failure in Flint. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13, 951.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13100951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cardwell, A., Hawker, D., & Greenway, M. (2002). Metal accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from Southeast Queensland, Australia. Chemosphere, 48, 653–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carty, A., Scholz, M., Heal, K., Gouriveau, F., & Mustafa, A. (2008). The universal design, operation and maintenance guidelines for farm constructed wetlands (FCW) in temperate climates. Bioresource Technology, 99, 6780–6792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chaudhuri, D., Majumder, A., Misra, A. K., & Bandyopadhyay, K. (2014). Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 16(11), 1119–1132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chavan, B. L., & Dhulap, V. P. (2012). Sewage treatment with constructed wetland using Panicum maximum forage grass. Journal of Environmental Science and Water Resources, 1(9), 223–230.Google Scholar
  18. Clijsters, H., Cuypers, A., & Vangronsveld, J. (1999). Physiological responses to heavy metals in higher plants: Defence against oxidative stress. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C, 54, 730–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. EPA. (2001). A Citizen’s guide to phytoremediation.Google Scholar
  20. Fawzy, M. A., El-sayed Badr, N., El-Khatib, A., & Abo-El-Kassem, A. (2012). Heavy metal biomonitoring and phytoremediation potentialities of aquatic macrophytes in River Nile. Environment Monitoring Assessment, 184, 1753–1771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ghosh, M., & Singh, S. P. (2005). A review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and utilization of it’s by products. Asian Journal of Energy and Environment, 6(4), 18.Google Scholar
  22. Hadad, H. R., Maine, M. A., & Bonetto, C. A. (2006). Macrophytes growth in a pilot-scale constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment. Chemosphere, 63, 1744–1753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Haloi, N., & Sarma, H. P. (2012). Heavy metal contaminations in the groundwater of Brahmaputra flood plain: An assessment of water quality in Barpeta District, Assam (India). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184(10), 6229–6237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Headley, T. R., & Tanner, C. C. (2008). Floating wetlands for stormwater treatment: Removal of copper, zinc and fine particulates (Technical Report 2008–030), Auckland Regional Council Auckland, NZ, 38p.Google Scholar
  25. Hegazy, A. K., Abdel-Ghani, N. T., & El-Chaghaby, G. A. (2011). Phytoremediation of industrial wastewater potentiality by Typha domingensis. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 8(3), 639–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hubbard, R. K. (2010). Floating vegetated mats for improving surface water quality. In V. Shah (Ed.), Emerging environmental technologies (pp. 211–244). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Iqbal, H., Ishfaq, M., Ullah, M., & Ahmad, W. (2013). Physico-chemical analysis of drinking water in district Kohat, Khyberpakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. International Journal of Basic Medical Sciences and Pharmacy, 3, 2.Google Scholar
  28. Jadia, C. D., & Fulekar, M. H. (2009). Phytoremediation of heavy metals: Recent techniques. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(6), 921–928.Google Scholar
  29. Jayaweera, M. W., Kasturiarachchi, J. C., Kularatne, R. K., & Wijeyekoon, S. L. (2008). Removal of aluminium by constructed wetlands with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutritional conditions. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, 42(2), 185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kadlec, R. H., & Wallace, S. D. (2009). Treatment wetlands (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: Taylor and Francis group. ISBN: 9781-56670-526-4.Google Scholar
  31. Kennish, L. (1992). Toxicity of heavy metals: Effects of Cr and Se on humans health. Journal of Indian Public Health Education, India, 2, 36–64.Google Scholar
  32. Kumar, N., Mallick, S., Yadava, R. N., Singh, A. P., & Sinha, S. (2013). Co-application of selenite and phosphate reduces arsenite uptake in hydroponically grown rice seedlings: Toxicity and defence mechanism. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 911, 71–179.Google Scholar
  33. Ladislas, S., Gérente, C., Chazarenc, F., Brisson, J., & Andrès, Y. (2013). Performances of two macrophytes species in floating treatment wetlands for cadmium, nickel, and zinc removal from urban stormwater runoff. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 2(224), 1408.Google Scholar
  34. Ladislas, S., Gérente, C., Chazarenc, F. J., & Brisson, A. Y. (2015). Floating treatment wetlands for heavy metal removal in highway stormwater ponds. Ecological Engineering, 80, 85–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu, J., Dong, Y., Xu, H., Wang, D., & Xu, J. (2007). Accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species in constructed wetland. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 147(3), 947–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lokhande, R. S., Singare, P. U., & Pimple, D. S. (2011). Toxicity study of heavy metals pollutants in waste water effluent samples collected from Taloja industrial estate of Mumbai, India. Resources and Environment, 1(1), 13–19.Google Scholar
  37. Maine, M. A., Suñé, N. L., & Lagger, S. C. (2004). Chromium bioaccumulation: Comparison of the capacity of two floating aquatic macrophytes. Water Research, 38(6), 1494–1501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Malik, A. (2007). Environmental challenge vis-a-vis opportunity: The case of water hyacinth. Environment International, 33(1), 122–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Maltais-Landry, G., Maranger, R., Brisson, J., & Chazarenc, F. (2009). Nitrogen transformations and retention in planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands. Water Research, 43(2), 535–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mbuligwe, S. E. (2004). Comparative effectiveness of engineered wetland systems in the treatment of anaerobically pre-treated domestic wastewater. Ecological Engineering, 23(4), 269–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mishra, S. S., & Mishra, A. (2008). Assessment of physico-chemical properties and heavy metal concentration in Gomti river. Research in Environment and Life Sciences, 1(2), 55–58.Google Scholar
  42. Mojiri, A. (2012). Phytoremediation of heavy metals from municipal wastewater by Typha domingensis. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6(3), 643–647.Google Scholar
  43. Muchuweti, M., Birkett, J. W., Chinyanga, E., Zvauya, R., Scrimshaw, M. D., & Lister, J. N. (2006). Heavy metal content of vegetables irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: Implication for human health. Agric. Ecosyts. Environ., 112, 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Onur, C. T., Cengiz, T., Harun, B., & Anil, Y. (2014). Constructed wetlands as green tools for management of boron mine wastewater. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 16, 537–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Osorio, A. C., Villafane, P., Caballero, V., & Manzano, Y. (2011). Efficiency of mesocosm scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of sanitary wastewater under tropical conditions. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 220, 161–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Padmavathiamma, P. K., & Li, L. Y. (2007). Phytoremediation technology: Hyperaccumulation of metals in plants. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 184, 105–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rahman, M. A., & Hasegawa, H. (2011). Aquatic arsenic: Phytoremediation using floating macrophytes. Chemosphere, 83, 633–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rai, P. K. (2010). Seasonal monitoring of heavy metals and physicochemical characteristics in a lentic ecosystem of subtropical industrial region, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 165(1–4), 407–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rai, P. K. (2012). An eco-sustainable green approach for heavy metals management: Two case studies of developing industrial region. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184(1), 421–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rai, P. K., & Tripathi, B. D. (2009). Comparative assessment of Azollapinnata and Vallisneria spiralis in Hg removal from GB Pant Sagar of Singrauli Industrial region, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 148(1–4), 75–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rai, U. N., Tripathi, R. D., Singh, N. K., Upadhyay, A. K., Dwivedi, S., Shukla, M. K., & Nautiyal, C. S. (2013). Constructed wetland as an ecotechnological tool for pollution treatment for conservation of Ganga river. Bioresource Technology, 148, 535–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rai, U. N., Upadhyay, A. K., Singh, N. K., Dwivedi, S., & Tripathi, R. D. (2015). Seasonal applicability of horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetland for trace elements and nutrient removal from urban wastes to conserve Ganga River water quality at Haridwar, India. Ecological Engineering, 81, 115–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rashed, M. N. (2010). Monitoring of contaminated toxic and heavy metals from mine tailings through age accumulation in soil and some wild plants at Southeast Egypt. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 178, 739–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rawat, S. K., Singh, R. K., & Singh, R. P. (2012). Remediation of nitrite contamination in ground and surface waters using aquatic macrophytes. Journal of Environmental Biology, 33, 51–56.Google Scholar
  55. Rieumont, S. O., Lima, L., De la Rosa, D., Graham, D. W., Columbie, I., Santana, J. L., & Sanchez, M. J. (2007). Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) as indicators of heavy metal impact of a large landfill on the Almendares river near Havana, Cuba. Bulletin of Environment Contamination and Toxicology, 79, 583–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rosli, N. R. M., & Yahya, K. (2012). Assessment of nutrients and sediment loading in a tropical river system in Malaysia. International conference on environment, chemistry and biology IPCBEE, 49.Google Scholar
  57. Rousseau, D. P. L., Vanrolleghem, P. A., & De Pauw, N. (2004). Constructed wetlands in Flanders: A performance analysis. Ecological Engineering, 23, 151–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Saeed, T., & Sun, G. (2012). A review on nitrogen and organics removal mechanisms in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: Dependency on environmental parameters, operating conditions and supporting media. Journal of Environmental Management, 112, 429–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Salt, D. E., Blaylock, M., Nanda-Kumar, P. B. A., Dushenkov, V., Ensly, B. D., Chet, I., & Raskin, I. (1995). Phytoremediation: A novel strategy for the removal of toxic elements from the environment using plants. Bio-Technology, 13, 468–475.Google Scholar
  60. Shah, A. B., Rai, U. N., & Singh, R. P. (2015). Correlations between some hazardous inorganic pollutants in the Gomti River and their accumulation in selected macrophytes under aquatic ecosystem. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 94, 783–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shuping, L. S., Snyman, R. G., Odendaa, P. J., & Ndakidemi, P. A. (2011). Accumulation and distribution of metals in Bolboschoenus maritimus (Cyperaceae), from a South African River. Water Air Soil Pollution, 216, 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Singh, D., Gupta, R., & Tiwari, A. (2012). Potential of duckweed (Lemna minor) for removal of lead from wastewater by phytoremediation. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 5(3).Google Scholar
  63. Sinha, S. N., & Nag, P. K. (2011). Air pollution from solid fuels. In J. O. Nriagu (Ed.), Encyclopedia of environmental health (Vol. 1, p. 46).Google Scholar
  64. Skinner, K., Wright, N., & Porter-Goff, E. (2007). Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants. Environmental Pollution, 145(1), 234–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Soda, S., Hamad, T., Yamaoka, Y., Ike, M., Nakazato, H., Saeki, Y., Kasamatsu, T., & Sakurai, Y. (2012). Constructed wetlands for advanced treatment of wastewater with a complex matrix from a metal-processing plant: Bioconcentration and translocation factors of various metals in Acorus gramineus and Cyperus alternifolius. Ecological Engineering, 39, 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Souza, F. A., Dziedzic, M., Cubas, S. A., & Maranho, L. T. (2013). Restoration of polluted waters by phytoremediation using Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.)Verdc., Haloragaceae. Journal of Environmental Management, 120, 5–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sukias, J. P. S., Yates, C. R., & Tanner, C. C. (2010). Assessment of floating treatment wetlands for remediation of eutrophic lake waters – Maero Stream (Lake Rotoehu). NIWA client report for environment bay of plenty, HAM2010-104, NIWA, Hamilton Dec 2010.Google Scholar
  68. Tanner, C. C., & Headley, T. R. (2011). Components of floating emergent macrophyte treatment wetlands influencing removal of stormwater pollutants. Ecological Engineering, 37, 474–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tee, H. C., Lim, P. E., Seng, C. E., & Nawi, M. A. (2012). Newly developed baffled subsurface flow constructed wetland for the enhancement of nitrogen removal. Bioresource Technology, 104, 235–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tolu, O. A., & Atoke, O. O. (2012). Achieving environmental sustainability in wastewater treatment by phytoremediation with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Journal of Sustainable Development, 5–7.Google Scholar
  71. Utmazian, M. N. D. S, & Wenzel, W. W. (2006). Phytoextraction of metal polluted soils in Latin America. Environmental Applications of Poplar and Willow Working Party, pp 18–20.Google Scholar
  72. Vymazal, J. (2007). Removal of nutrients in various types of constructed wetlands. Science of the Total Environment, 380(1), 48–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Vymazal, J., & Kropfelova, L. (2011). A three-stage experimental constructed wetland for treatment of domestic sewage: First 2 years of operation. Ecological Engineering, 37(1), 90–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wang, H., & Yu, X. (2014). A review of the protection of sources of drinking water in China. Natural Resources Forum.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1477-8947.12036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wang, H., Zhang, H., & Cai, G. (2011). An application of phytoremediation to river pollution remediation. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 10, 1904–1907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wu, H., Zhang, J., Li, P., Zhang, J., Xie, H., & Zhang, B. (2011). Nutrient removal in constructed microcosm wetlands for treating polluted river water in northern China. Ecological Engineering, 37, 560–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zhang, D. Q., Gersberg, R. M., Hua, T., Zhu, J., Tuan, N. A., & Tan, S. K. (2012). Pharmaceutical removal in tropical sub-surface flow constructed wetlands at varying hydraulic rates. Chemosphere, 87, 273–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdul Barey Shah
    • 1
  • Rana Pratap Singh
    • 1
  • U. N. Rai
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (Central) UniversityLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Plant Ecology and Environmental Science DivisionCSIR-NBRILucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations