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Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress: Focusing on Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure

  • Parmeshwar B. Katare
  • Hina L. Nizami
  • Sanjay K. BanerjeeEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in the industrialized countries. A complex clinical syndrome, essentially marked by compromised cardiac function and chronic heart failure is often preceded by cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy is the enlargement of the cardiomyocytes, which is initially an adaptive response to increased pressure or volume load in heart. Prolonged haemodynamic load, however, results in pathological cardiac hypertrophy involving reactivation of fetal gene program, myocardial fibrosis and increased heart weight indices, eventually leading to heart failure. Changes in signalling modules such as cardiac contractile machinery, calcium ion homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been speculated to play critical roles in the development and progression of heart failure. Mitochondria, occupying about 30% mass of a cardiomyocyte and produce >95% ATP required by the heart. The energy requirements of the heart are met primarily by fatty acid oxidation that takes place in the mitochondria which, leads to generation of ATP coupled to reduction of oxygen to water. About 2% of the oxygen consumed by the mitochondria gets converted to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dysfunctional mitochondria become deficient in oxidative phosphorylation-induced energy production, and generate increased level of ROS. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress share a bidirectional association, and have both been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy and failure. While oxidative stress induces cellular damage by attacking biomolecules and indirectly by activating maladaptive signalling cascades, mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the transition from compensatory hypertrophy to heart failure. Current treatments used in cardiac hypertrophy and failure are inadequate. However, new evidence has suggested changes in mitochondria plays a crucial role in progression and severity of the disease. Here in the present book chapter, we are going discuss the central role of mitochondria in developing cardiac hypertrophy and failure and future strategy to develop novel therapy.

Abbreviations

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

DAMPs

Damage associated molecular patterns

NAD

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NOX

NADPH oxidases

OXPHOS

Oxidative phosphorylation system

PRRs

Pathogen recognition receptors

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TCA

Tricarboxylic acid cycle

TFAM

Mitochondrial transcription factor A

TLR

Toll like receptor

XDH

Xanthine dehydrogenase

XOD

Xanthine oxidase

Notes

Acknowledgement

PBK is thankful to Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for awarding senior research fellowship (SRF). HLN is thankful to Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) for awarding senior research fellowship (SRF).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Parmeshwar B. Katare
    • 1
  • Hina L. Nizami
    • 1
  • Sanjay K. Banerjee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Drug Discovery Research Centre (DDRC)Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (THSTI)FaridabadIndia

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