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Aging and Cardiovascular Diseases: The Role of Cellular Senescence

  • Perinur Bozaykut
Chapter

Abstract

Aging, which is associated with several undesirable processes, is a complex phenomenon. Aging mechanisms are not fully comprehended yet, however, diseased and aged cells are correlated with accumulation of senescent cells. Various studies have revealed that aging leads to structural and functional changes in cardiac cells. During aging, stresses such as telomere shortening and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce cellular senescence which is characterized by permanent cell cycle arrest and secretion of inflammatory proteins that affect tissue environment. Especially, the effect of oxidative stress and ROS generation on macromolecules have been considered important in the modulation of various age-associated chronic disorders and the lifespan. Recent studies have shown the presence senescent phenotype in endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of patients with heart failure, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Existence of senescent vascular cells indicates that cellular senescence has a causative role in the pathology of cardiovascular diseases. There is also accumulating evidence that impairment in systemic metabolism is connected by cellular senescence. Therefore, clearance of senescent cells or suppression of cellular senescence is suggested as an important field for future investigation and the discovery of senolytics is seen as a promising therapy of vascular diseases. This chapter describes the phenomenon of cellular senescence with emphasis to its link to oxidative stress during aging and its essential role on the pathology of the vascular system.

Keywords

Aging Cellular senescence Oxidative stress Cardiovascular disease Senolytic 

Abbreviations

AAA

Abdominal aortic aneurysm

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

DDR

DNA damage response

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

EC

Endothelial cells

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

ETC

Electron transport chain

HFpEF

Heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction

IL

Interleukin

Keap1

Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1

LV

Left ventricular

MCP

Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

NAD

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NFκB

Nuclear factor kappa B

NO

Nitric oxide

NOS

Nitric oxide synthase

NOX

NADPH oxidases

Nrf2

Nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2:

oxLDL

Oxidized low-density lipoproteins:

PGC-1α

PPAR-γ coactivator 1 alpha

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SAHF

Senescence-associated heterochromatin foci

SAMP8

Senescence accelerated mice prone 8

SASP

Senescence-associated secretory phenotype:

SA-β-gal

Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase

SIPS

Stress-induced premature senescence

SIRT

Sirtuin

SMC

Smooth muscle cells

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TGFβ

Transforming growth factor β

TNFα

Tumor necrosis factor

VSMC

Vascular smooth muscle cell

Notes

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) 2219 Grant Program.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Perinur Bozaykut
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Biology and GeneticsAcibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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