Computational Models for Blast Pressure Load Analysis in Explosions
Explosions are a typical type of accidental events that occur in engineering structures and infrastructures. Although explosions are often accompanied by fires, their underlying mechanisms are completely different. In contrast to fires manifesting in the evolution of light, heat, and flame, such hydrocarbon explosions result in a blast or a rapid increase in overpressure, which can cause the catastrophic failure of structures and infrastructures. To analyze blast pressure loads, how gas clouds expand and disperse with varying concentration ratios around structures must be identified. Various conditions in the surrounding environment, such as wind and ventilation, significantly affect the gas dispersion characteristics and subsequent consequences of explosions. If a gas cloud with a different concentration, depending on its location, is ignited, explosions occur and cause overpressure loads. This chapter describes computational models for the analysis of blast pressure loads of structures in explosions. The main tasks involve the characterization of gas dispersion and of the blast pressure load profile, which includes the rise time, peak overpressure load, decay type of the overpressure load, and duration. This chapter focuses on the computational methods for identifying the blast pressure load characteristics of a certain explosion event.
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