Unemployment, Migration and Cyber Criminality in Nigeria

  • Cornelius Chiedozie Ozeh
  • Chukwuemeka Chibuzo Ohajionu


It could only have been a pleasant surprise if the densely populated virtual world of the Internet is crime-free. While it is understandable that crime is inevitable in every human community, including the Internet, because humans are not angels, it is mind boggling that the level of this species of crime in Nigeria is gargantuan. There are variegated versions of cyber-criminality in the world, but the majority of the versions of the crime that originate from Nigeria or by Nigerians elsewhere are economic; hence, this chapter discusses cyber-criminality in Nigeria, querying the roles of the economic realities of the country, especially unemployment and economic migration in promoting the e-crimes. This study is qualitative in design, and it adopts the explanatory capability of McClelland’s Needs Theory in the content analysis of data collected from secondary sources such as textbooks, journals, newspapers and the Internet. The study identified the motivation to satisfy needs for achievement, affiliation and power, which could not be satisfied due to unemployment or underemployment, as the root of the intimidating level of cyber-criminality in Nigeria. It recommended value reorientation, job creation and the implementation of the letters and spirits of the laws against cyber-criminality in Nigeria as the solutions to the ravaging and image-battering crime in the country.


Unemployment Migration Cyber-crimes Internet 


  1. Ademola, A., & Olajubutu, I. (2009). Spinning off an entrepreneurship culture among Nigerian University Studies: Prospect and challenges. African Journal of Business Management, 3(3), 80–88.Google Scholar
  2. Adeniran, A. I. (2008). The internet and emergence of Yahooboys sub-culture in Nigeria. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 2(2) 368–381. Online. Retrieved from
  3. Aigbokhan, F. E. (1988). Rural-urban migration and urban unemployment in Nigeria. Online. Retrieved from
  4. Alabi, F. O. (2014). Implementing the new senior secondary school curriculum for the realization of the objective of entrepreneurship education in Ondo State, Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 1 (Special edition), 264–270.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, E. (1999). The code of the streets: Sociology of urban violence. Journal of Atlantic, 273(5), 80–91.Google Scholar
  6. Awogbenle, A. D., & Iwuamadi, K. (2010). Youth unemployment: Entrepreneurship development programme as an intervention mechanism. African Journal of Business Management, 4(6), 831–835.Google Scholar
  7. Brenner, S. (2007). At light speed: Attribution and response to cybercrime/terrorism/warfare. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 97(2), 379–475.Google Scholar
  8. Britz, M. T. (2009). Computer forensics and cyber crime. New Jersey: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  9. Castells, M. (2002). The internet galaxy: Reflections on the internet, business, and society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Channels Television. (2016). Cyber crime: How well is Nigeria fighting the menace? November 12. Online. Retrieved from
  11. Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review, 44(August), 588–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Doreo, P. (2013). The Nigerian unemployment challenge. African Report Features.Google Scholar
  13. Emanuelsson-Korsell, L., & Soderman, K. (2001). IT-related crime-old crimes in a new guise, but new directions too. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 2(1), 5–14.Google Scholar
  14. George-Maria Tyendezwa, T. G. (n.d.). Legislation on cybercrime in Nigeria: Imperatives and challenges. Online. Retrieved from
  15. Guardian Newspaper, 24 April 2015.Google Scholar
  16. Hassan, A. B., Lass, F. D., & Makinde, J. (2012). Cybercrime in Nigeria: Causes, effects and the way out. ARPN Journal of Science and Technology, 2(7). Online. Retrieved from
  17. Mago, S. (2014). Urban youth unemployment in Africa: Whither socio-economic problems. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(9). MCSER Publishing, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  18. Mberu, R., & Pongou, R. (2010). Nigeria: Multiple forms of mobility in Africa’s demographic giant. Online. Retrieved from
  19. NHTCU/NOP. (2002). Hi-tech crime: The impact on UK business. London: NHTCU.Google Scholar
  20. Obaro, O. (2012). The surge of criminality and insecurity in Nigeria. The sociology of criminal motivation. An Interdisciplinary Journal of the Nigerian Sociological Society. State and Society, 12(1), 37–42.Google Scholar
  21. Ojedokun, A. (2005). The evolving sophistication of internet abuses in Africa. The International Information and Library Review, 37, 11–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Okafor, E. E. (2011). Youth unemployment and implication for stability of democracy in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 13(1), 358–373.Google Scholar
  23. Okeshola, F. B., & Adeta, A. K. (2013). The nature, causes and consequences of cyber crime in tertiary institutions in Zaria-Kaduna state, Nigeria. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 3(9). Online. Retrieved from
  24. Olaide, M., & Adewole, R. (2004). Cyber crime embarrassing for victims. Retrieved September 2011, from
  25. Omonigho, T., & Olaniyan, Z. (2013). Causes and consequences of rural-urban migration Nigeria: A case study of Ogun waterside local government area of Ogun State, Nigeria. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 16(I) 197–206. ISSN: 2046-9578.
  26. Onadipe, R. (2015). Cyber crime; The greatest challenge of the Nigerian youths!!! The Nigerian Voice. Online. Retrieved from
  27. Thomas, D., & Loader, B. (2000). Introduction – Cybercrime: Law enforcement, security and surveillance in the information age. In D. Thomas & B. Loader (Eds.), Cybercrime: Law enforcement, security and surveillance in the information age. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Umeozulu, F. (2012). Perception of cybercrime among Nigerian youths (A study of Caritas University). Online. Retrieved from
  29. UN Office on Drugs and Crime. (2005). The eleventh United Nations Congress on crime prevention and criminal justice. Retrieved August 12, 2013, from
  30. Wall, D. (2001). Cybercrimes and the internet. In D. Wall (Ed.), Crime and the Internet. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wilson, H., & Shun-Yung, K. W. (2009). Emerging cybercrime variants in the socio-technical space. Retrieved January 31, 2014, from

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cornelius Chiedozie Ozeh
    • 1
  • Chukwuemeka Chibuzo Ohajionu
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceChukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu UniversityIgbariamNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria
  3. 3.Distance Learning CentreUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria

Personalised recommendations