Crimes and Internal Security in Nigeria
This chapter discusses crime/offence as an act or omission which violates existing laws in Nigeria. It attempts to differentiate between crime/offence from general deviant behaviour as well as from civil wrong (tort). It alludes to the complex process required for establishing the culpability or otherwise of any person accused of committing crime/offence because the law presumes the innocence of the accused. The chapter explores the various dimensions and manifestations of crime/offence in Nigeria to include crime against the state, persons, property and public order. Arguing that crime/offence is a major cause of insecurity in Nigeria, quality efforts are invested in demonstrating that both citizens and government violate laws despite that government does not usually prosecute itself. Three major types of crime-related insecurity, namely life-insecurity, knowledge-insecurity and labour-insecurity, are identified and treated in the chapter. It is recommended that Nigerian government should get its priority right by mobilising against those criminalities (armed robbery, terrorism, murder, etc.) that constitute serious threat to its survival. Nonetheless, it is concluded that the Nigerian state stands to benefit from lawbreakers if properly processed.
KeywordsLaw Deviant behaviour State and crime
- Abdallah, N. M. (2016). FG, states spend 8% of budgets on education. Daily Trust, June 3. Retrieved from www.dailytrust.com.ng.
- Afri-Dev. (2015). Africa health, human & social development information service.Google Scholar
- Akinola, F. A., & Ayodele, J. O. (2016). Insurgency, counter-insurgency and challenges of socioeconomic development in the Northeastern Nigeria. Ife Social Science Review, Special Issue July, 420–441.Google Scholar
- Arthur, E. (2016). Problems and prospects of budget implementation in Nigeria. InfoGuideNIGERIA, November 2. Retrieved October 1, 2017, from https://infoguidenigeria.com/problems-prospects-budget-implementation/.
- Ayodele, J. O. (2006). Globalisation, global group relations and international insecurity in the 20th century. In O. Akinwumi, O. O. Okpe, & G. D. Je’adayide (Eds.), Inter-group relations in Nigeria during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (pp. 618–630). Makurdi, Nigeria: Aboki Publishers. Proceeding of the 1st National Conference of History Department, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, 8–11, June 2005.Google Scholar
- Ayodele, J. O. (2008). Understanding the propensities for criminal disposition in the Niger-Delta. Nigerian Sociological Review, 3(1&2), 173–180.Google Scholar
- Ayodele, J. O. (2012). Police-electorate ratio and the emerging attitudes toward police in Ekiti state: Implications for efficient election-policing in Nigeria. In E. A. Akinlo, O. O. I. Orimoogunje, A. I. Akinyemi, & J. O. Aransiola (Eds.), Challenges of Socioeconomic Development in Nigeria at 50: Issues and Policy Options (pp. 100–113). Ile-Ife, Nigeria: Faculty of Social Sciences.Google Scholar
- Ayodele, J. O. (2015). Attitudes of citizens towards the Nigeria police in Ekiti state: A sociological analysis. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Jos.Google Scholar
- Ayodele, J. O., & Onu, F. O. (2006). Democracy and ethnic conflicts in contemporary Nigeria. In O. Akinwumi, O. O. Okpe, & G. D. Je’adayide (Eds.), Inter-group relations in Nigeria during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (pp. 641–655). Makurdi, Nigeria: Aboki Publishers. Proceeding of the 1st National Conference of History Department, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, 8–11, June 2005.Google Scholar
- BusinessDay. (2017). Budgetary allocation to education shows no break in pattern. BusinessDay, January 3. Rerieved September 28, 2017, from www.businessdayonline.com.
- CLEEN Foundation. (2012). Summary of findings of 2012 national crime and safety survey. Lagos: CLEEN Foundation. Retrieved November 7, 2017, from http://cleenfoundation.blogspot.com.ng/2012/07/summary-of-findings-of-2012-national.html.
- Clinard, M. B., & Meier, R. B. (2004). Sociology of deviant behaviour. Belmont, USA: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.Google Scholar
- Doob, C. B. (2000). Sociology: An introduction (6th ed.). Orlando, USA: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.Google Scholar
- Fallah, R., & Phillips, F. (2015). Employment law in Nigeria, part II. Retrieved November 8, 2017, from http://www.mondaq.com/Nigeria/x/415704/employee+rights+labour+relations/Nigeri+Part+II.
- Federal Government of Nigeria. (2004). Compulsory, free universal basic education act (UBE Act, 2004): Law of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Abuja: FGN.Google Scholar
- Federal Republic of Nigeria. (1999). The constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria. Abuja: FGN.Google Scholar
- Federal Republic of Nigeria. (2004). The criminal code act. CAP “C38.” Laws of Federation of Nigeria. Abuja: FGN.Google Scholar
- Federal Republic of Nigeria. (2013). Same sex marriage (prohibition) act. Abuja: FGN.Google Scholar
- FGN. (1999). Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria [Nigeria], Act No. 24, 5 May. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Justice.Google Scholar
- FGN. (2013). Terrorism (Prevention)(Ammendment) Act. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Justice.Google Scholar
- Ikuteyijo, L., & Ayodele, J. O. (2013). Community-oriented policing in indigenous Nigerian communities. In M. K. Nalla & G. R. Newman (Eds.), Community policing in indigenous communities (pp. 49–58). New York, USA: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
- IOM/OIM. (2015). Displacements tracking matrix, round ii report, February. Retrieved December 23, 2015, from https://nigeria.iom.int/sites/default/files/dtm/IOM%20DTM%20Nigeria%20II%20Round%20Report_Feb_2015.pdf.
- IPU/UNHCR. (2015). IPU/UNHCR handbook for parliamentarians. House Committee on IDPs and Refugees in Northeast Initiatives in partnership with Office of UN High Commission for Refugees in Nigeria, and National Institute for Legislative Studies (NILS).Google Scholar
- Johnson, M. A. (2016). Rising wage-theft is agonizing. Business Day Online, August 9. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from http://www.businessdayonline.com/rising-wage-theft-is-agonizing/.
- Marama, N. (2017). Terrorised UNIMAID residents: Eight Boko Haram attacks in six months and a professor dead. Vanguard Newspaper Online, July 23. Retrieved November 8, 2017, from www.vanguardngr.com.
- Murray-Bruce, B. (2015). Education and insecurity in Nigeria: Why we need more brain infrastructure, July 24. Retrieved December 20, 2015, from www.unitenigeria.com.
- National Bureau of Statistics (2017). Crime Statistics: Reported Offences by Types and State (2016). Abuja: Nigeria. Retrieved November 2017. https://www.nigerianstat.gov.ng/download/567Cached.
- NRC/IDMC (2014). Global overview 2014: People internally displaced by conflict and violence. Retrieved December 23, 2015, from http://www.internal-displacement.org/assets/publications/2014/201405-global-overview-2014-en.pdf.
- Odunmorayo, E. (2015). The number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Nigeria is growing quickly, September 29. Retrieved December 20, 2015, from http://venturesafrica.com/the-number-of-internally-displaced-persons-idps-in-nigeria-is-growing-quickly/.
- Okonkwo, C. O. (2005). Okonkwo and Naish: Criminal law in Nigeria. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Limited.Google Scholar
- Olokor, F. (2017). Boko Haram attacks: 70 lecturers quit UNIMAID. Sunday Punch Online, August 6. Retrieved from www.punchng.com.
- Onemola, O. W. (2012). Employment casualization and workplace violations in Nigeria. Ventures Africa, December 2. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from http://venturesafrica.com/employment-casualization-and-workplace-violations-in-nigeria/.
- Oyedeji, O. (2017). 2017 Budget: Again, Nigeria fails to meet UN benchmark on education. Premium Times Nigeria. Retrieved from www.premiumtimesng.com.
- Premium Times. (2013). Why Jonathan won’t reinstate Justice Salami - Artoney General Adoke. Retrieved from December 2017. https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/5228-why_jonathan_can_t_reinstate_justice_salami.html.
- Sheriff Deputies. (n.d.). The anatomy of crimes in Nigeria: A statistical study. Retrieved from www.sheriffdeputiesltd.com/crimes-in-nigeria.
- UNICEF. (2011). Situation analysis of women and children in Nigeria. UNICEF Nigeria. Retrieved November 8, 2017, from https://www.unicef.org/nigeria/education.html.
- UNICEF. (2014). A child-friendly, quality, free and compulsory education for all children in Africa. An address delivered by Mr. Jean Gough, UNICEF Representative in Nigeria during 2014 Africa Child Day, June 2014.Google Scholar
- Williams, K. S. (1991). Textbook on criminology. Glasgow: Blackstone Press Ltd.Google Scholar