Advertisement

Environmental Insecurity in Nigeria

  • Ikenna Mike Alumona
  • Kingsley Maduka Onwuanabile
Chapter

Abstract

The need to maintain a clean and healthy environment has taken the centre stage in both intellectual discourses and policy frameworks of many states in the past few decades. The need to ensure a sustainable environment is better appreciated when discussed against the background of the harmful calamity environmental hazards such as climate change, flooding, global warming, ozone layer depletion, air/water pollution and deforestation have caused and are causing in the different regions of the world. In Nigeria, the challenge of environmental security only gained prominence in 1987, following the dumping of toxic waste in Koko village of Delta State. Against this background, this chapter outlines the environmental challenges which constitute security threats in Nigeria—frightening gully sites, desertification, seasonal flooding, oil spillage and water pollution, illicit and unarticulated refuse dumps and industrial wastes in most metropolis. The chapter briefly highlights the past efforts of the government towards ensuring safe and clean environment, starting with the promulgation of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Act 1988. The chapter basically argues that the weak institutional capacity of the state institutions responsible for environmental management and protection accounts for the challenge of environmental insecurity. It therefore recommends the strengthening of agencies involved with environmental management and attitudinal change among Nigerians.

Keywords

Environmental insecurity Environmental management  Degradation Deforestation 

References

  1. Ako, T. A., Onoduku, U. S., Oke, S. A., Adamu, I. A., Ali, S. E., Mamodu, A., & Ibrahim, A. T. (2014). Environmental impact of artisanal gold mining in Luku, Minna, Niger state, North Central Nigeria. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics, 2(1), 28–37.Google Scholar
  2. Amadi, L. (2013). Climate change, peasantry and rural food production decline in the Niger Delta region: A case of the 2012 flood disaster. Journal of Agricultural and Crop Research, 1(6), 94–103.Google Scholar
  3. Annon (2006). Niger Delta natural resource damage assessment and restoration project. Phase 1 – Scoping report. Federal Ministry of Environment, Abuja Nigeria Conservation Foundation, Lagos, WWF UK, CEESP- IUCN Commission on Environmental, Economic, and Social Policy.Google Scholar
  4. Appadorai, A. (1968). The substance of politics. London: University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Argandoña, A. (1998). The stakeholder theory and the common good. Journal of Business Ethics, 17, 1093–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Argandoña, A. (2001). The common good. IESE Business School, The Working Paper. Retrieved from http://www.iese.edu/research/pdfs/DI-0937-E.pdf.
  7. Aristotle. (1998). Politics. Indianapolis: Hackett.Google Scholar
  8. Azubike, A. L. (2011). The technology of peaty soils in Mozambique and Angola. Transactions of the 5th International Congress of Soil Science, Leopoldville, 3, 398–401.Google Scholar
  9. Barrow, G. H. (1999). A review of desertification in Africa. London: Castle Publishers.Google Scholar
  10. Brashares, J. S., Abrahms, B., Fiorella, K. J., Golden, C. D., Hojnowski, C. E., Marsh, R. A., et al. (2014). Wildlife decline and social conflict. Science, 345, 376–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2010). Health information for travelers to Nigeria. Retrieved from http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/destinations/nigeria.aspx Accessed on 22/12/2012.
  12. Dregne, H. E. (1986). Desertification of arid land. www.ciesin.coloubia.edu.
  13. Ebeku, K. (2003). Judicial attitudes to redress for oil related damages in Nigeria. RECIEL, 12(2), 199–208.Google Scholar
  14. Egboka, B. C. E. (2004). Distress call and plea to the senate committee for urgent actions against floods, soil/gully erosion/landslides disasters in the southeastern Nigeria. Paper presented to senate committee on Environmental; roads/Erosion senate delegation.Google Scholar
  15. Emodi, E. E. (2013). Drought and desertification as they affect Nigerian environment. Journal of Environmental Management and Safety, 4(1), 45–54.Google Scholar
  16. Eneh, O. C. (2011). Managing Nigeria’s environment: The unresolved issues. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4, 250–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eneh, O. C., & Agbazue, V. C. (2011). Protection of Nigeria’s environment: A critical policy review. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4, 490–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. European Environment Agency. (2010). European environment—State and outlook: Synthesis. Copenhagen, Denmark: EEA.Google Scholar
  19. Fagbohun, O. (2010a). The emergence and development of environmental law in Nigeria (1960–2010). In Azinge (Ed.), Law and development in Nigeria: 50 years of nationhood. Lagos: Nigerian Institute of Advanced Legal Studies.Google Scholar
  20. Fagbohun, O. (2010b). Environmental degradation and Nigeria’s national security: Making connections. Law and Security in Africa, 358–385. Retrieved October 15, from http://www.nials-nigeria.org/journals/Olanrewaju%20Fagbohunlaw.pdf.
  21. Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN). (1999). National Park Service act. Abuja: FGN.Google Scholar
  22. Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN). (2012) Nigeria’s path to sustainable development through green economy. Country Report to the Rio+20 Summit, June.Google Scholar
  23. Federal Government of Nigeria. (2013). Nigeria post-disaster needs assessment: 2012 floods. Abuja: FGN.Google Scholar
  24. Federal Ministry of Environment Abuja, Nigerian Conservation Foundation Lagos, WWF UK and CEESP-IUCN Commission on Environmental, Economic, and Social Policy. (2006). Niger Delta Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Project. Policy Paper, May 31.Google Scholar
  25. Florini, A., & Simmons, P. J. (1998). The new security thinking: A review of the North American literature. New York: Rockefeller Bros.Google Scholar
  26. Galston, W. A. (2013). The common good: Theoretical content, practical utility. Dædalus, the Journal of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, 142(2), 9–14.Google Scholar
  27. Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162(1), 239–257.Google Scholar
  28. Harmeling, S. (2010). Global climate risk index 2010: Who is most vulnerable? Weather-related loss events since 1990 and how Copenhagen needs to respond. Briefing Paper. Retrieved October 15, 2017, from http://germanwatch.org/klima/cri2010.pdf.
  29. Igbokwe, J. I., Akinyede, J. O., Dang, B., Alaga, T., Ono, M. N., Nnodu, V. C., et al. (2008). Mapping and monitoring of the impact of gully erosion in southeastern Nigeria with satellite remote sensing and geographic information system. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XXXVII, Part B8, Beijing.Google Scholar
  30. International Crisis Group. (2007). Nigeria: Ending unrest in the Niger Delta. Africa report N°135–5 December. Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/46044/135_nigeria_unrest_in_the_niger_delta.pdf.
  31. Kadafa, A. A. (2012). Environmental impacts of oil exploration and exploitation in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Environment & Earth Sciences, 12(3), 18–28.Google Scholar
  32. Khagram, S., Clark, W. C., & Raad, D. R. (2003). From the environment and human security to sustainable security and development. Journal of Human Development, 4(2), 289–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Leadership Newspaper. (2017). Frontline states: Concern over deepening desertification despite relocation, October 31. Retrieved November 12, 2017, from http://leadership.ng/2017/10/31/frontline-states-concern-deepening-desertification-despite-relocation/.
  34. Lodgaard, S. (1992). Environment, confidence-building, and security. In S. Lodgaard & A. Ornäs (Eds.), The environment and international security. Prio: Uppsala.Google Scholar
  35. Lonergan, S. (1999). Global environmental change and human security, GECHS: Science plan. Bonn: IHDP.Google Scholar
  36. Mahon, J. F., & McGowan, R. A. (1991). Searching for the common good: A process-oriented approach. Business Horizons, 34(4), 79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Makinde, O., & Adegoke, T. (2007). Nigeria: Environment law in Nigeria. In Aluko & Oyebode (Ed.), The international comparative legal guide to: Environment law 2007. London: Global Legal Group.Google Scholar
  38. Maller, C., Townsend, M., Pryor, A., Brown, P., & St Leger, L. (2006). Healthy nature healthy people: ‘Contact with nature’ as an upstream health promotion intervention for populations. Health Promotion International, 21(1), 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mathews, J. T. (1989). Re-defining security. Foreign Affairs, 68(2), 162–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). (2010). Nigeria, country security and safety plan – Draft 1, MayGoogle Scholar
  41. Miller, G. T. (1999). Environmental science: Working with earth. New York: Wadsworth Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  42. Mingst, K. (2003). Essentials of international relations. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  43. Mohammed, N. T. (2015). Desertification in Northern Nigeria: Causes and implications for national food security. Peak Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 3(2), 22–31.Google Scholar
  44. Nabegu, A. B., Mustapha, A. B., & Naibbi, A. I. (2017). Environmental regulations in Nigeria: A mini review. International Journal of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resources, 1(5), 1–3.Google Scholar
  45. National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). (2010). Annual abstract of statistics 2010. Abuja: NBS.Google Scholar
  46. National Emergency Management Agency, NEMA. (2013). Annual report on flood, official Gazette. Abuja: NEMA.Google Scholar
  47. Naughton, M. J., Alford, H. J., & Brady, B. (1995). The common good and the purpose of the firm. Journal of Human Values, 1(2), 221–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nigerian Environmental Study/Action Team (NEST). (2004). Climate change and Nigeria: A guide for policymakers. Ibadan, Nigeria: NEST.Google Scholar
  49. Nseabasi, A. (2005). Conflicts in Nigeria’s Niger Delta: Issues on response and management. International Journal of Social Sciences, 4(1), 161–175.Google Scholar
  50. Nwosu, U. D. (n.d.). Environmental pollution control in Nigeria: Problems, solutions and advocacy. Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://www.scribd.com/payments/billing.
  51. Offiong, J. O. (2011). The dilemma of implementing effective environmental policies in Nigeria. JORIND, 9(1), 420–430.Google Scholar
  52. Ogbodo, S. G. (2009). Environmental protection in Nigeria: Two decades after the Koko incident. Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law, 15(1.2), 1–19.Google Scholar
  53. Ogezi, A. E. (2005). Tin mining and processing related environmental impacts and associated hazards on the Jos Plateau, North Central Nigeria. Paper presented at the International Conference on Energy, Environment and Disaster (INCEED), North Carolina, USA, July 24th–30th.Google Scholar
  54. Ogunba, A. (2016). An appraisal of the evolution of environmental legislation in Nigeria. Vermont Law Review, 40, 673–694.Google Scholar
  55. Okonofua, B. A. (2011). Paths to peacebuilding: Amnesty and the Niger Delta violence. Dissertation, Georgia State University. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.gsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com.ng/&httpsredir=1&article=1061&context=sociology_diss.
  56. Okonta, I., & Douglas, O. (2003). Where vultures feast. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  57. Olagunju, T. E. (2015). Drought, desertification and the Nigerian environment: A review. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment, 7(7), 196–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Onuoha, F. (2008). Environmental degradation, livelihood and conflicts: A focus on the implications of the diminishing water resources of Lake Chad for North-Eastern Nigeria. African Centre for Constructive Resolution of Disputes. Retrieved July 22, 2017, from http://www.accord.org.za/ajcr-issues/%EF%BF%BCenvironmental-degradation-livelihood-and-conflicts/.
  59. Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace. (2004). Compendium of the social doctrine of the church. Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana.Google Scholar
  60. Salati, L. K., Jatua, B. S., Bida, A. D., & Ganiyu, I. A. (2011). Mitigating the environmental effects of artisanal mining: A case study of Azara Barytes deposits in Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria. 47th Annual Conference of Nigerian Mining and Geosciences Society (NMGS), Minna, 6th–11th March.Google Scholar
  61. Saliu, H. A., Luqman, S., & Abdulahi, A. A. (2007). Environmental degradation, rising poverty and conflict: Towards an explanation of the Niger-Delta crisis. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 9(4), 275–296.Google Scholar
  62. Swart, R. (1996). Security risks of global environmental changes. Global Environmental Change.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0959-3780(96)00014-3.
  63. Tercula, I. (2015). Desertification: Water scarcity hits Sokoto Farmers. Sunday Trust, Sunday, February 9. Retrieved from www.sundaytrust.
  64. The Guardian (2000). Private investment in water supply. Lagos. The Guardian, February 21.Google Scholar
  65. Ukoli, M. K. (2005). Environmental factors in the management of the oil and gas industry in Nigeria. Retrieved from www.cenbank.org.
  66. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (1994). Human development report. New York: UNDP.Google Scholar
  67. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2006a). Niger Delta human development report. Abuja: UNDP.Google Scholar
  68. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2006b). Summary: Human development report 2006, beyond scarcity: power, poverty and the global water crisis. New York: UNDP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. World Health Organization (WHO). (2011). Cholera basic facts. Retrieved from http://www.searo.who.int/EN/Section10/Section391.htm.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ikenna Mike Alumona
    • 1
  • Kingsley Maduka Onwuanabile
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceChukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu UniversityIgbariamNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Political SciencePaul UniversityAwkaNigeria
  3. 3.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria

Personalised recommendations