Advertisement

Magnetic Cellulose Green Nanocomposite Adsorbents for the Removal of Heavy Metal Ions in Water/Wastewater

  • K. Seeni MeeraEmail author
  • D. Arunbabu
Chapter
Part of the Materials Horizons: From Nature to Nanomaterials book series (MHFNN)

Abstract

In the recent days, control of water contamination and treatment of wastewater is a challenging task throughout the globe because of their impact on human health. The most commonly employed method for the removal of organic pollutants especially toxic heavy metal ions from water/wastewater is adsorption using an adsorbent. There are various types of adsorbents available ranging from synthetic polymers like chelating resins, ion-exchange resins, polystyrene, and sulfonate resins. However, high cost and regeneration difficulties are associated with the use of these synthetic polymer adsorbents. In view of the above difficulties, researchers are focusing on the development of low-cost adsorbents from naturally available green biopolymers like polysaccharides. Cellulose is one among the most frequently used green polysaccharide to prepare various types of functional adsorbent materials at low cost. Even though, cellulose alone could not give a satisfactory performance on the adsorption or chelation of heavy metal ions from water/wastewater solution. To improve the adsorption capacity and achieve easy separation of cellulose-based green adsorbents, the magnetization of the adsorbent is a significant and efficient route. Magnetic adsorbent materials provide excellent water purification without any contaminants and also have the ability to treat large quantities of water/wastewater within a short span of time. Often, iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3/Fe3O4) had been utilized for environmental remediation because of their superior advantages such as large surface area, biocompatibility, less energy requirement, low toxicity, and better separation ability. This chapter will provide a broader perspective of magnetic cellulose green nanocomposites and their use as an adsorbent for the removal of toxic heavy metal ions from water/wastewater.

Keywords

Cellulose Microbeads Magnetic nanoparticles Heavy metals Adsorbent Wastewater 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Department of Science & Technology, Government of India, New Delhi for the financial assistance received under DST - SYST (Sanction order: SP/YO/267/2018).

References

  1. 1.
    Agarwal T, Narayana SNGH, Pal K, Pramanik K, Giri S, Banerjee I (2015) Calcium alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose beads for colon-targeted drug delivery. Int J Biol Macromol 75:409–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahmed MA, Ali SM, El-Dek SI, Galal A (2013) Magnetite-hematite nanoparticles prepared by green methods for heavy metal ions removal from water. Mater Sci Eng B 178:744–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ambashta RD, Sillanpää M (2010) Water purification using magnetic assistance: a review. J Haz Mat 180:38–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anirudhan TS, Suchithra PS, Senan P, Tharun AR (2012) Kinetic and equilibrium profiles of adsorptive recovery of thorium(iv) from aqueous solutions using poly(methacrylic acid) grafted cellulose/bentonite superabsorbent composite. Ind Eng Chem Res 51:4825–4836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aouada FA, Pan Z, Orts WJ, Mattoso LHC (2009) Removal of paraquat pesticide from aqueous solutions using a novel adsorbent material based on polyacrylamide and methylcellulose hydrogels. J Appl Polym Sci 114(4):2139–2148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arivizhivendhan KV, Mahesh M, Boopathy R, Patchaimurugan K, Maharaja P, Swarnalatha S, Regina R, Sekaran MG (2016) Synthesis of surface-modified iron oxides for the solvent-free recovery of bacterial bioactive compound prodigiosin and its algicidal activity. J Phys Chem B 120(36):9685–9696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ayalew A, Gonte RR, Balasubramanian K (2012) Development of polymer composite beads for dye adsorption. Int J Green Nanotechnol 4:440–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Azad FN, Ghaedi M, Dashtian K, Jamshidi A, Hassani G, Montazerozohori M, Hajati S, Rajabi M, Bazrafshan AA (2016) Preparation and characterization of an AC–Fe3O4–Au hybrid for the simultaneous removal of Cd2+, Pb2+, Cr3+ and Ni2+ ions from aqueous solution via complexation with 2-((2,4-dichloro-benzylidene)-amino)-benzenethiol: Taguchi optimization. RSC Adv 6:19780–19791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barisik M, Atalay S, Beskok A, Qian S (2014) Size dependent surface charge properties of silica nanoparticles. J Phys Chem C 118:1836–1842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blachechen LS, Fardim P, Petri DFS (2014) Multifunctional cellulose beads and their interaction with gram positive bacteria. Biomacromol 15:3440–3448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boopathy R, Karthikeyan S, Mandal AB, Sekaran G (2013) Adsorption of ammonium ion by coconut shell-activated carbon from aqueous solution: kinetic, isotherm, and thermodynamic studies. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:533–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bootharaju MS, Chaudhari K, Pradeep T (2012) Real time plasmonic spectroscopy of the interaction of Hg2+ with single noble metal nanoparticles. RSC Adv 2:10048–10056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cai H, Sharma S, Liu W, Mu W, Liu W, Zhang X, Deng Y (2014) Aerogel microspheres from natural cellulose nanofibrils and their application as cell culture scaffold. Biomacromol 15:2540–2547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Carpenter AW, de Lannoy C-F, Wiesner MR (2015) Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies. Environ Sci Technol 49:5277–5287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carrick C, Pendergraph SA, Wågberg L (2014) Nanometer smooth, macroscopic spherical cellulose probes for contact adhesion measurements. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:20928–20935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chanani ME, Bahramifar N, Younesi H (2015) Synthesis of Fe3O4@silica core–shellparticles and their application for removal of copper ions from water. J Appl Res Water Wastewater 2:176–182Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chandra V, Park J, Chun Y, Lee JW, Hwang I-C, Kim KS (2010) Water-dispersible magnetite-reduced graphene oxide composites for arsenic removal. ACS Nano 4(7):3979–3986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Correa JR, Bordallo E, Canetti D, León V, Otero-Díaz LC, Negro C, Gómez A, Sáez-Puche R (2010) Structure and superparamagnetic behaviour of magnetite nanoparticles in cellulose beads. Mater Res Bull 45:946–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Crini G (2005) Recent developments in polysaccharide-based materials used as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Prog Polym Sci 30:38–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Das SK, Khan MdMR, Guha AK, Das AR, Mandal AB (2012) Silver-nano biohybride material: synthesis, characterization and application in water purification. Bioresour Technol 124:495–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Das SK, Khan MdMR, Parandhaman T, Laffir F, Guha AK, Sekaran G, Mandal AB (2013) Nano-silica fabricated with silver nanoparticles: antifouling adsorbent for efficient dye removal, effective water disinfection and biofouling control. Nanoscale 5:5549–5560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Das SK, Mandal AB (2015) Green synthesis of nanomaterials with special reference to environmental and biomedical applications. Curr Sci 108(11):1999–2002Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dewangan T, Tiwari A, Bajpai AK (2010) Adsorption of Hg (II) ions onto binary biopolymeric beads of carboxymethyl cellulose and alginate. J Dispersion Sci Technol 31:844–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ding HL, Zhang YX, Wang S, Xu JM, Xu SC, Li GH (2012) Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles: the silica coating regulations with a single core for different core sizes and shell thicknesses. Chem Mater 24:4572–4580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Donia AM, Atia AA, Abouzayed FI (2012) Preparation and characterization of nano-magnetic cellulose with fast kinetic properties towards the adsorption of some metal ions. Chem Eng J 191:22–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Du X, He J, Zhu J, Sun L, An S (2012) Ag-deposited silica-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles catalyzed reduction of p-nitrophenol. Appl Surf Sci 258:2717–2723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Du K-F, Yan M, Wang Q-Y, Song H (2010) Preparation and characterization of novel macroporous cellulose beads regenerated from ionic liquid for fast chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1217:1298–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Duman O, Tunç S, Polat TG (2015) Adsorptive removal of triarylmethane dye (basic red 9) from aqueous solution by sepiolite as effective and low-cost adsorbent. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 210:176–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fink H-P, Weigel P, Purz HJ, Ganster J (2001) Structure formation of regenerated cellulose materials from NMMO-solutions. Prog Polym Sci 26:1473–1524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gericke M, Trygg J, Fardim P (2013) Functional cellulose beads: preparation, characterization, and applications. Chem Rev 113:4812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gonte RR, Balasubramanian K, Mumbrekar JD (2013) Porous and cross-linked cellulose beads for toxic metal ion removal: Hg(II) ions. J Polym 2013, Article ID 309136, p 9.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/309136Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Guo JF, Ma B, Yin AY, Fan KN, Dai WL (2011) Photodegradation of rhodamine B and 4-chlorophenol using plasmonic photocatalyst of Ag–AgI/Fe3O4@SiO2 magnetic nanoparticle under visible light irradiation. Appl Catal B 101:580–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gupta VK, Nayak A, Agarwal S (2015) Bioadsorbents for remediation of heavy metals: current status and their future prospects. Environ Eng Res 20:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gupta VK, Suhas (2009) Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal-a review. J Environ Manage 90:2313–2342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hao X, Shen W, Chen Z, Zhu J, Feng L, Wu Z, Wang P, Zeng X, Wu T (2015) Self-assembled nanostructured cellulose prepared by a dissolution and regeneration process using phosphoric acid as a solvent. Carbohydr Polym 123:297–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Henglein A (1998) Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles: photochemical preparation and Interaction with O2, CCl4, and Some Metal Ions. Chem Mater 10:444–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hu J, Lo IMC, Chen G (2004) Removal of Cr(VI) by magnetite nanoparticle. Water Sci Technol 50(12):139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hu H, Wang Z, Pan L (2010) Synthesis of monodisperse Fe3O4@silica core-shell microspheres and their application for removal of heavy metal ions from water. J Alloys Compd 492:656–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hu A, Apblett A (2014) Nanotechnology for water treatment and purification (lecture notes in nanoscale science and technology), Springer, p 373Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kamal Mohamed SM, Ganesan K, Milow B, Ratke L (2015) The effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) addition on the physical and morphological properties of cellulose aerogel beads. RSC Adv. 5:90193–90201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kango S, Kumar R (2016) Low-cost magnetic adsorbent for As(III) removal from water: adsorption kinetics and isotherms. Environ Monit Assess 188:60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Karadagli I, Schulz B, Schestakow M, Milow B, Gries T, Ratke L (2015) Production of porous cellulose aerogel fibers by an extrusion process. J Supercrit Fluids 106:105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Li G, Du Y, Tao Y, Deng H, Luo X, Yang J (2010) Iron(II) cross-linked chitin-based gel beads: preparation, magnetic property and adsorption of methyl orange. Carbohydr Polym 82:706–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lim AP, Aris AZ (2014) A review on economically adsorbents on heavy metalsremoval in water and wastewater. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 13:163–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lindh J, Carlsson DO, Strømme M, Mihranyan A (2014) Convenient one-pot formation of 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose beads via periodate oxidation of cellulose in water. Biomacromol 15:1928–1932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Liu C-H, Chuang Y-H, Chen T-Y, Tian Y, Li H, Wang M-K, Zhang W (2015) Mechanism of arsenic adsorption on magnetite nanoparticles from water: thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies. Environ Sci Technol 49(13):7726–7734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Liu Z, Wang H, Liu C, Jiang Y, Yu G, Mu X, Wang X (2012) Magnetic cellulose–chitosan hydrogels prepared from ionic liquids as reusable adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions. Chem Commun 48:7350–7352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Liu S, Luo X, Zhou J (2013) Cellulose-medical, pharmaceutical and electronic applications. In van de Ven T, Godbout L (eds) Chapter 6, pp 105–124Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lu J, Jin R-N, Liu C, Wang Y-F, Ouyang X-K (2016) Magnetic carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals as adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. Int J Biol Macromol 93:547–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Luo X, Lei X, Cai N, Xie X, Xue Y, Yu F (2016) Removal of heavy metal ions from water by magnetic cellulose-based beads with embedded chemically modified magnetite nanoparticles and activated carbon. ACS Sustainable Chem Eng 4:3960–3969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Luo X, Lei X, Xie X, Yu B, Cai N, Yu F (2016) Adsorptive removal of lead from water by the effective and reusable magnetic cellulose nanocomposite beads entrapping activated bentonite. Carbohydr Polym 151:640–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Luo X, Liu S, Zhou J, Zhang L (2009) In situ synthesis of Fe3O4/cellulose microspheres with magnetic-induced protein delivery. J Mater Chem 19:3538–3545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Luo X, Zhang L (2009) High effective adsorption of organic dyes on magnetic cellulose beads entrapping activated carbon. J Hazard Mater 171:340–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Malik DS, Jain CK, Yadav AK (2017) Removal of heavy metals from emerging cellulosic low-cost adsorbents: a review. Appl Water Sci 7:2113–2136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mosiniewicz-Szablewska E, Safarikova M, Safarik I (2010) Magnetically modified biological materials as perspective adsorbents for large-scale magnetic separation processes. Horiz World Phys (Applied physics in the 21st century) 266:301–318Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nagaoka S, Tobata H, Takiguchi Y, Satoh T, Sakurai T, Takafuji M, Ihara H (2005) Characterization of cellulose microbeads prepared by a viscose-phase-separation method and their chemical modification with acid anhydride. J Appl Polym Sci 97:149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    O’Connell DW, Birkinshaw C, O’Dwye TF (2008) Heavy metal adsorbents prepared from the modification of cellulose: a review. Bioresour Technol 99:6709–6724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Olsson RT, Samir MASA, Salazar-Alvarez G, Belova L, Ström V, Berglund LA, Ikkala O, Noguěs J, Gedde UW (2010) Making flexible magnetic aerogels and stiff magnetic nanopaper using cellulose nanofibrils as templates. Nat Nanotechnol 5:584–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Peng S, Meng H, Ouyang Y, Chang J (2014) Nanoporous magnetic cellulose-chitosan composite microspheres: preparation, characterization, and application for Cu(II) adsorption. Ind Eng Chem Res 53:2106–2113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Philippova O, Barabanova A, Molchanov V, Khokhlov A (2011) Magnetic polymer beads: recent trends and developments in synthetic design and applications. Eur Polym J 47:542–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Qi H, Chang C, Zhang L (2009) Properties and applications of biodegradable transparent and photoluminescent cellulose films prepared via a green process. Green Chem 11:177–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ramalingam B, Khan MdMR, Mondal B, Mandal AB, Das SK (2015) Facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles decorated magnetic-chitosan microsphere for efficient removal of dyes and microbial contaminants. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 3(9):2291–2302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ramesh Babu B, Kanimozhi R, Venkatesan P, Seeni Meera K (2013) Electrochemical degradation of methyl parathion. Int J Environ Eng 5:311–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ramesh Babu B, Seeni Meera K, Venkatesan P (2011) Removal of pesticides from wastewater by electrochemical methods—a comparative approach. Sustain Environ Res 21:401–406Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ramesh Babu B, Seeni Meera K, Venkatesan P, Sunandha D (2010) Removal of fatty acids from palm oil effluent by combined electro-fenton and biological oxidation process. Water Air Soil Pollut 211(1–4):203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ramesh Babu B, Udaya Bhanu S, Seeni Meera K (2009) Waste minimization in electroplating industries: a review. J Environ Sci Health Part C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev 27:155–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ramrakhiani L, Ghosh S, Majumdar S (2016) Surface modification of naturally available biomass for enhancement of heavy metal removal efficiency, upscaling prospects, and management aspects of spent biosorbents: a review. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 180:41–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Reisner DE, Pradeep T (2014) Aquananotechnology: global prospects. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ren H, Gao Z, Wu D, Jiang J, Sun Y, Luo C (2016) Efficient Pb(II) removal using sodium alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose gel beads: Preparation, characterization, and adsorption mechanism. Carbohyd Polym 137:402–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rule P, Balasubramanian K, Gonte RR (2014) Uranium(VI) remediation from aqueous environment using impregnated cellulose beads. J Environ Radioact 136:22–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Samir MASA, Alloin F, Dufresne A (2005) Cross-linked nanocomposite polymer electrolytes reinforced with cellulose whiskers. Biomacromol 6(2):612–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schestakow M, Karadagli I, Ratke L (2016) Cellulose aerogels prepared from an aqueous zinc chloride salt hydrate melt. Carbohydr Polym 137:642–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Seeni Meera K, Murali Sankar R, Murali A, Jaisankar SN, Mandal AB (2012) Sol-gel network silica/modified montmorillonite clay hybrid nanocomposites for hydrophobic surface coatings. Colloids Surf B 90:204–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Seeni Meera K, Murali Sankar R, Paul J, Jaisankar SN, Mandal AB (2014) The influence of applied silica nanoparticles on a bio-renewable castor oil based polyurethane nanocomposite and its physicochemical properties. Phys Chem Chem Phys 16:9276–9288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sescousse R, Gavillon R, Budtova T (2011) Wet and dry highly porous cellulose beads from cellulose–NaOH–water solutions: influence of the preparation conditions on beads shape and encapsulation of inorganic particles. J Mater Sci 46:759–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shannon MA, Bohn PW, Elimelech M, Georgiadis JG, Mariňas BJ, Mayes AM (2008) Science and technology for water purification in the coming decades. Nature 452:301–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sharma S, Balasubramanian K, Arora R (2016) Adsorption of arsenic (V) ions onto cellulosic-ferric oxide system: kinetics and isotherm studies. Desalin Water Treat 57:9420–9436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sharma YC, Srivastava V, Singh VK, Kaul SN, Weng CH (2009) Nano-adsorbents for the removal of metallic pollutants from water and wastewater. Environ Technol 30:583–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sivashankar R, Sathya AB, Vasantharaj K, Sivasubramanian V (2014) Magnetic composite an environmental super adsorbent for dye sequestration—a review. Environ Nanotechnol Monit Manage 1–2:36–49Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Song D, Yang R, Wang C, Xiao R, Long F (2016) Reusable nanosilver-coated magnetic particles for ultrasensitive SERS-based detection of malachite green in water samples. Sci Rep 6:22870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sumesh E, Bootharaju MS, Pradeep T (2011) A practical silver nanoparticle-based adsorbent for the removal of Hg2+ from water. J Hazard Mater 189:450–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sun X, Yang L, Li Q, Zhao J, Li X, Wang X, Liu H (2014) Amino-functionalized magnetic cellulose nanocomposite as adsorbent for removal of Cr(VI): synthesis and adsorption studies. Chem Eng J 241:175–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Swatloski RP, Spear SK, Holbrey JD, Rogers RD (2002) Dissolution of cellose with ionic liquids. J Am Chem Soc 124:4974–4975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Thatai S, Khurana P, Kumar D (2014) Mishra AK (ed) In Nanocomposites in wastewater treatment (Chap. 8). CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, USA, p 211Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Thümmler K, Fischer S, Feldner A, Weber V, Ettenauer M, Loth F, Falkenhagen D (2011) Preparation and characterization of cellulose microspheres. Cellulose 18:135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Tiwari A, Dewangan T, Bajpai AK (2008) Removal of toxic As (V) ions by adsorption onto alginate and carboxymethyl cellulose beads. J Chin Chem Soc 55:952–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Trygg J, Fardim P, Gericke M, Mäkilä E, Salonen J (2013) Physicochemical design of the morphology and ultrastructure of cellulose beads. Carbohydr Polym 93:291–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ulmgern P, Rådeström R (2005) Interaction between metal ions and acid-base groups on kraft pulp surfaces. STFI-Packforsk Report No.: 132, Dec 2005, p 4Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Vijayalakshmi K, Gomathi T, Latha S, Hajeeth T, Sudha PN (2016) Removal of copper(II) from aqueous solution using nanochitosan/sodium alginate/microcrystalline cellulose beads. Int J Biol Macromol 82:440–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Vilela D, Parmar J, Zeng Y, Zhao Y, Sánchez S (2016) Graphene-based microbots for toxic heavy metal removal and recovery from water. Nano Lett 16:2860–2866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Vipin AK, Fugetsu B, Sakata I, Isogai A, Endo M, Li M, Dresselhaus MS (2016) Cellulose nanofiber backboned Prussian blue nanoparticles as powerful adsorbents for the selective elimination of radioactive cesium. Sci Rep 6:37009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wang H, Li B, Shi B (2008) Preparation and surface acid-base properties of porous cellulose. BioRes 3:3–12Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wang S, Zhang Z, Liu B, Li J (2013) Silica coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles supported phosphotungstic acid: a novel environmentally friendly catalyst for the synthesis of 5-ethoxymethylfurfural from 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and fructose. Catal Sci Technol 3:2104–2112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wu C, Zhu G, Fan J, Wang J (2016) Preparation of neutral red functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 and its application to the magnetic solid phase extraction of trace Hg(II) from environmental water samples. RSC Adv. 6:86428–86435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Xiong X, Zhang L, Wang Y (2005) Polymer fractionation using chromatographic column packed with novel regenerated cellulose beads modified with silane. J Chromatogr A 1063:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Yu X, Kang D, Hu Y, Tong S, Ge M, Cao C, Song W (2014) One-pot synthesis of porous magnetic cellulose beads for the removal of metal ions. RSC Adv. 4:31362–31369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Yu X, Tong S, Ge M, Wu L, Zuo J, Cao C, Song W (2013) Adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals. J Environ Sci (China) 25(5):933–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Yuan P, Fan M, Yang D, He H, Liu D, Yuan A, Zhu JX, Chen TH (2009) Montmorillonite-supported magnetite nanoparticles for the removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater 166:821–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Zhang X, Niu H, Yan J, Cai Y (2011) Immobilizing silver nanoparticles onto the surface of magnetic silica composite to prepare magnetic disinfectant with enhanced stability and antibacterial activity. Colloids Surf A 375:186–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Zhang X, Qian J, Pan B (2016) Fabrication of novel magnetic nanoparticles of multifunctionality for water decontamination. Environ Sci Technol 50(2):881–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Zhang S, Zhang Y, Liu J, Xu Q, Xiao H, Wang X, Xu H, Zhou J (2013) Thiol modified Fe3O4@SiO2 as a robust, higheffective, and recycling magnetic sorbent for mercury removal. Chem Eng J 226:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Zhao XW, Zhang G, Jia Q, Zhao C, Zhou W, Li W (2011) Adsorption of Cu(II), Pb(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cd(II) from aqueous solution by poly(aryl ether ketone) containing pendant carboxyl groups (PEK-L): equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics. Chem Eng J 171(1):152–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Zhou L, Gao C, Xu W (2010) Magnetic dendritic materials for highly efficient adsorption of dyes and drugs. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2:1483–1491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Zhou S, Wang D, Sun H, Chen J, Wu S, Na P (2014) Synthesis, characterization, and adsorptive properties of magnetic cellulose nanocomposites for arsenic removal. Water Air Soil Pollut 225:1945–1958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zhou D, Zhang L, Guo S (2005) Mechanisms of lead biosorption on cellulose/chitin beads. Water Res 39:3755–3762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Zhu S, Wu Y, Chen Q, Yu Z, Wang C, Jin S, Ding Y, Wu G (2006) Dissolution of cellulose with ionic liquids and its application: a mini-review. Green Chem 8:325–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMadanapalle Institute of Technology and Science (MITS)Chittoor DistrictIndia
  2. 2.Department of Aerogels and Aerogel CompositesInstitute of Materials Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR)KölnGermany

Personalised recommendations