ASEAN Post-50 pp 177-201 | Cite as

Environmental Threats to the Performance of Urban Areas in ASEAN Integration

  • Zakaria Alcheikh MahmoudEmail author
  • Yahaya Ahmad
  • Melasutra Md. Dali
  • Nikmatul Adha Nordin


Urban areas of ASEAN, particularly the large ones, have played a vital role in local development and regional integration. A large section of ASEAN population and activities is concentrated in the urban areas. This has led to environmental threats such as air pollution, climate change and water pollution, with a critical impact on the performance of the urban areas at the country level as well as at the ASEAN integration level. This chapter looks at urban areas of ASEAN and their contribution to the regional integration process. Air pollution, its evolution, its sources, earlier and current responses to deal with the pollution and the pollution consequent issues and challenges are discussed. The chapter also looks at climate change with its current expected critical results and highlights some of the initiatives to alleviate the impact of climate change followed by an assessment of the current situation, issues and future challenges of water pollution.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zakaria Alcheikh Mahmoud
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yahaya Ahmad
    • 2
  • Melasutra Md. Dali
    • 1
  • Nikmatul Adha Nordin
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Sustainable Urban Planning & Real Estate (SUPRE)University of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Centre for Building Construction and Tropical Architecture (BUCTA)University of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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