For Gaming-Based Consensus Building: Problem Formulation of Snowfall Disaster Mitigation in a Japanese Rural Area

  • Satoru Ono
  • Michinori Kimura
Part of the Translational Systems Sciences book series (TSS, volume 18)


This research contributes to building consensus and making social decisions about disaster mitigation, especially in districts of heavy snowfall. From the existing research, the hypothesis model of snowfall disaster problem formulation has been developed, which includes the snowfall disaster phase, software phase, and hardware phase. Next, interview surveys in Takashima city were conducted among the various stakeholders: officers of the social welfare council, community leaders, public health nurses, welfare commissioners, and government officers. As a result of the surveys, the causal relationship and trade-off relationship among the phases have been observed. Especially, information asymmetry among the stakeholders in snow removal and elderly persons watching and health-checking activity is extracted as one of the problems in the snowfall disaster problem structure.


Snowfall disaster Disaster mitigation Stakeholder analysis Problem formulation 



This research could not be performed without the cooperation of all the interviewees. The government officers in the community collaboration section assisted us greatly in the preliminary research. The authors are grateful for all their cooperation. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI grant number 17K00707.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satoru Ono
    • 1
  • Michinori Kimura
    • 2
  1. 1.Ritsumeikan UniversityIbaraki-shiJapan
  2. 2.Lake Biwa Environmental Research InstituteOtsu-shiJapan

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