Advertisement

Intrinsic Quality Factors: Carcass Quality Grading Systems

  • Joseph William Holloway
  • Jianping Wu
Chapter

Abstract

The history of red meat production across the globe has focused on marshaling available resources to produce cattle, sheep, goats, camels, yak, or other ruminant animal without too much regard to the end user of the total process of red meat production. Therefore, a food purveyor was confronted with an array of wholesale raw products at the marketplace of which only some would be acceptable to his/her market. Thus, a discontinuity in the production chain occurred with animals being produced on one side and meat being served to consumers on the other side. So, classifications were developed to aid in sorting the array of products at the fulcrum of the process, the meat packer (where animals became meat). This chapter describes the classification systems employed in the world that have attempted to sort these raw wholesale products according to their value to the end user. This chapter also presents the research delineating the relative successes of the various systems used in the world. Red Meat Science and Production takes a different perspective of the production, delivery system than this historic method. That is, the orientation is to understand the consumer’s desires for red meat; translate those desires into red meat specifications; then understand control points in the production, delivery system sensitive to the character of these specifications; and then orchestrate the production, delivery system to consistently deliver the desired products to the targeted consumer. Although Red Meat Science and Production takes a different approach to the historical approach, it is necessary to understand the methods commonly used to characterize red meat in order to develop the new approach. Thus, this chapter provides a “springboard” for launching different approaches to red meat science and production.

References

  1. Acheson, R.J., D.R. Woerner, and J.D. Tatum. 2014. Effects of USDA carcass maturity on sensory attributes of beef produced by greain finished steers and heifers classified as less than 30 months old using dentition. Journal of Animal Science 92: 1792–1799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almlie, V.L., L. VanWezemael, W. Verbeke, and O. Ueland. 2013. One technology does not fit all: Profiling consumers of tender and tenderized beef steaks. Meat Science 93: 361–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Argiles, J.M., J. Lopez-Soriano, V. Almendro, S. Busquets, and F.J. Lopez-Soriano. 2005. Cross-talk between skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: A link with obesity? Medicinal Research Reviews 25: 49–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boleman, S.L., S.J. Boleman, W.W. Morgan, D.S. Hale, D.B. Griffin, J.W. Savel, R.P. Ames, M.T. Smith, J.D. Tatum, T.G. Field, G.C. Smith, B.A. Bardner, J.B. Morgan, S.L. Northcutt, H.G. Dolezal, D.R. Gill, and F.K. Ray. 1998. National Beef Quality Audit-1995: Survey of producer-related defects and carcass quality and quantity attributes. Journal of Animal Science 76: 96–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bouyssou, D., T. Marchant, M. Pirlot, P. Perny, A. Tsoukias, and P. Vincke. 2000. Evaluation and decision models a critical perspective, 274. Dordrecht: Kluwer’s Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brandon, K., P. Allen, R. Polkinghorne, A. Gee, J. Lau, and M. Drennan. 2006. Testing the meat standards Australia (MSA) model on Irish beef. Proceedings of 52nd International Congress Meat, Science and Technology. 619–620.Google Scholar
  7. Brooks, J.C., J.B. Belew, D.B. Griffin, B.L. Gwartney, D.S. Hale, W.R. Henning, D.D. Johnson, J.B. Morgan, F.C. Parrish Jr., J.O. Reagan, and J.W. Savell. 2000. National Beef Tenderness Survey –1998. Journal of Animal Science 78: 1852–1860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bumpus, E.K., J.E. Sawyer, T.D.A. Forbes, B.G. Warrington, and J.W. Holloway. 2005. Influence of acetagenic versus propiogenic supplements on adipose tissue accretion in stocker steers grazing ryegrass pastures. Beef Cattle Research in Texas, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, ge Sta. TX 2005:31–34.Google Scholar
  9. Busboom J.R., and J.J. Reeves. 2013. Japanese Meat Grading. Washington State University Pullman, WA. Available at http://www.nikuya.ca/products/JapaneseMeatGrading.pdf. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
  10. Dikeman, M.E. 1987. Fat reduction in animals and the effects on palatability and consumer acceptance of meat products. In Proceedings of American Meat Science Association National Livestock Meat Board. 93–103.Google Scholar
  11. Dikeman, M.E., G.B. Reddy, V.H. Arthaud, H.J. Tuma, R.M. Koch, R.W. Mandigo, and J.B. Axe. 1986. Longissimus muscle quality, palatability, connective tissue, and histological characteristics of bulls and steers fed different energy levels and slaughtered at four ages. Journal of Animal Science 63: 92–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dubost, A., D. Micol, B. Picard, C. Lethias, D. Andueza, D. Bauchart, and A. Listrat. 2013b. Structural and biochemical characteristics of bovine intramuscular connective tissue and beef quality. Meat Science 95: 555–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Farmer, L.J., D.J. Devlin, N.F.S. Gault, A. Gee, A.W. Gordon, B.W. Moss, R. Polkinghorne, J. Thompson, E.L.C. Tolland, and I.J. Tollerton. 2009b. Prediction of eating quality using the Meat Standards Australia system for Northern Ireland. Proceedings of 55th International Congress Meat Science and Technology, PE7 34, Copenhagen, August 2009.Google Scholar
  14. Farmer, L.J., D.J. Devlin, N.F.S. Gault, A.W. Gordon, B.W. Moss, E.L.C. Tolland, and I.J. Tollerton. 2010. Comparison of systems for assuring the eating quality of beef. Advance in Animal Science Belfast: Proceeding of British Society of Animal Science 231.Google Scholar
  15. Ferguson, D.M., J. Thompson, and R. Polkinghorne. 1999. Meat standards Australia, a “PACCP” based beef grading scheme for consumers. (3) PACCP requirements which apply to carcass processing. Book of abstracts of the 45th International Congress Meat Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan, 18–19.Google Scholar
  16. Field, R., R. McCormick, V. Balasubramanian, D. Sanson, J. Wise, D. Hixon, M. Riley, and W. Russell. 1997. Tenderness variation among loin steaks from A and C maturity carcasses of heifers similar in chronological age. Journal of Animal Science 75: 693–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Garcia, L.G., K.L. Nicholson, T.W. Hoffman, T.E. Lawrence, D.S. Hale, D.B. Griffin, J.W. Savell, D.L. Van Overbeke, J.B. Morgan, K.E. Belk, T.G. Field, J.A. Scanga, J.D. Tatum, and G.C. Smith. 2008a. National Beef Quality Audit–2005: Survey of targeted cattle and carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, and value of fed steers and heifers. Journal of Animal Science 86: 3533–3543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Garcia, P.T., N.A. Pensel, A.M. Sancho, N.J. Latimori, A.M. Kloster, M.A. Amigone, and J.J. Casal. 2008b. Beef lipids in relation to animal breed and nutrition in Argentina. Meat Science 79: 500–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Garmyn, A.J., G.G. Hilton, R.G. Mateescu, J.B. Morgan, J.M. Reecy, R.G. Tait Jr., D.C. Beitz, Q. Duan, J.P. Schoonmaker, M.S. Mayes, M.E. Drewnoski, Q. Liu, and D.L. Van Overbeke. 2011a. Estimation of relationships between mineral concentration and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle and beef palatability traits. Journal of Animal Science 89: 2849–2858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garmyn, A.J., S.M. Knobel, K.S. Spivey, L.F. Hightower, J.C. Brooks, B.J. Johnson, S.L. Parr, R.J. Rathmann, J.D. Starkey, D.A. Yates, J.M. Hodgen, J.P. Hutcheson, and M.F. Miller. 2011b. Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force measurements of 3 beef muscles in response to various aging periods after trenbolone acetate and estradiol implants and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation of finishing beef steers. Journal of Animal Science 89: 3783–3791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gruber, S.L., J.D. Tatum, J.A. Scanga, P.L. Chapman, G.C. Smith, and K.E. Belk. 2006. Effects of postmortem aging and USDA quality grade on Warner–Bratzler shear force values of seventeen individual beefmuscles. Journal of Animal Science 84: 3387–3396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hale, D.S., K. Goodson, and J.W. Savell. 2010. Beef quality and yield grades. Department of Animal Science, Texas AgriLife Extension Service, College Station, TX 77843-2471. Updated February 10, 2010. www.meat.tamu.edu/beefgrading
  23. Hausman, G.J., M.V. Dodson, K. Ajuwon, M. Azain, K.M. Barnes, L.L. Guan, Z. Jiang, S.P. Poulos, R.D. Sainz, S. Smith, M. Spurlock, J. Novakofski, M.E. Fernyhough, and W.G. Bergen. 2009. Board Invited Review: The biology and regulation of preadipocytes and adipocytes in meat animals. Journal of Animal Science 87: 1218–1246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hocquette, J.F., I. Legrand, C. Jurie, D.W. Pethick, and D. Micol. 2011a. Perception in France of the Australian system for the prediction of beef quality (MSA) with perspectives for the European beef sector. Animal Production Science 51: 30–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hocquette, J.F., R. Botreau, B. Picard, A. Jacquet, D.W. Pethick, and N.D. Scollan. 2012a. Opportunities for predicting and manipulating beef quality. Meat Science 92: 197–209.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Hocquette, J.F., A. Jacquet, G. Giraud, I. Legrand, P. Sans, P. Mainsant, and W. Verbeke. 2013. Quality of food products and consumer attitudes in France. In Consumer attitudes to food quality products. ed. M. Klopcic, A. Kuipers, and J. F. Hocquette. EAAP Publication, 133, 67–82, Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  27. Hocquette, J.F., L. Van Wezemael, S. Chriki, I. Legrand, W. Verbeke, L. Farmer, N.D. Scollan, R. Polkinghorne, R. Rødbotteni, P. Allen, and D.W. Pethick. 2014. Modelling of beef sensory quality for a better prediction of palatability. Meat Science 97: 316–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hood, R.L., and C.E. Allen. 1978. Lipogenesis in isolated intramuscular adipose tissue from four bovine muscles. Journal of Animal Science 46: 1626–1633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Howard, J.T., S.D. Kachman, M.K. Nielsen, T.L. Mader, and M.L. Spangler. 2013. The effect of myostatin genotype on body temperature during extreme temperature events. Journal of Animal Science 91: 3051–3058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Igo, J.L., D.L. Van Overbeke, D.R. Woerner, J.D. Tatum, D.L. Pendell, L.L. Vedral, G.G. Mafi, M.C. Moore, R.O. McKeith, G.D. Gray, D.B. Griffin, D.S. Hale, J.W. Savell, and K.E. Belk. 2013. Phase I of The National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Quantifying willingness-to-pay, best-worst scaling, and current status of quality characteristics in different beef industry marketing sectors. Journal of Animal Science 91: 1907–1919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. INAO 2009. Notice technique définissant les critères minimaux à remplir pour l’obtention d’un label rouge en ‘Gros bovins de boucherie’. Available at. http://www.inao.gouv.fr/public/home.php?pageFromIndex=textesPages/ Label_rouge_(Guides_et_NT)410.php~mnu=410 (Verified November 2010).
  32. Jeremiah, L.E., M.E.R. Dugan, J.L. Aalhus, et al. 2003c. Assessment of the relationship between chemical components and palatability of major beef muscles and muscle groups. Meat Science 65: 1013–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Juarez, M., J.A. Basarab, V.S. Baron, M. Valera, I.L. Larsen, and J.L. Aalhus. 2012a. Quantifying the relative contribution of ante- and post-mortem factors to the variability in beef texture. Animals 6: 1878–1887.Google Scholar
  34. Juarez, M., M.E.R. Dugan, N. Aldai, J.A. Basarab, V.S. Baron, T.A. McAllister, and J.L. Aalhus. 2012b. Beef quality attributes as affected by increasing the intramuscular levels of vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids. Meat Science 90: 764–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Konarska, M., K. Kuchida, G. Tarr, and R.J. Polkinghorne. 2017. Relationships between marbling measures across principal muscles. Meat Science 123: 67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kuchida, K., T. Kurihara, M. Suzuki, and S. Miyoshi. 1997. Development of an accurate method for measuring fat percentage on rib-eye area by computer image analysis. Animal Science and Technology 68: 853–859.Google Scholar
  37. Kuchida, K., K. Konishi, M. Suzuki, and S. Miyoshi. 1998. Prediction of the crude fat contents in rib-eye muscle of beef using the fat area ratio calculated by computer image analysis. Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho. Journal of Animal Science 69: 655–658.Google Scholar
  38. Kuchida, K., S. Kono, K. Konishi, L.D. Van Vleck, M. Suzuki, and S. Miyoshi. 2000. Prediction of crude fat content of longissimus muscle of beef using the ratio of fat area calculated from computer image analysis: Comparison of regression equations for prediction using different input devices at different stations. Journal of Animal Science 78: 799–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kuchida, K., M. Suzuki, and S. Miyoshi. 2001. Development of photographing equipment for the cross section of carcass and prediction of BMS number by using obtained image from that equipment. Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho. Journal of Animal Science 72: 224–231.Google Scholar
  40. Kuchida, K., T. Osawa, T. Hori, H. Kotaka, and S. Maruyama. 2006. Evaluation and genetics of carcass cross section of beef carcass by computer image analysis. Journal of Animal Genet.(Japanese) 34: 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Li, J., and P. Shatadal. 2001. Classification of tough and tender beef by image texture analysis. Meat Science 57: 341–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Li, J., J. Tan, F.A. Martz, and H. Heymann. 1999. Image texture features as indicators of beef tenderness. Meat Science 53: 17–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lin, K.C., H.R. Cross, and S.B. Smith. 1992. Esterification of fatty acids by bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Lipids 27: 111–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Long, N.M., C.B. Tousley, K.R. Underwood, S.I. Paisley, W.J. Means, B.W. Hess, M. Du, and S.P. Ford. 2012. Effects of early- to mid-gestational undernutrition with or without protein supplementation on offspring growth, carcass characteristics, and adipocyte size in beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science 90: 197–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. López-Campos, Ó., J.L. Aalhus, N. Prietoc, I. Larsen, M. Juárez, and J.A. Basarab. 2015. Chronological vs. physiological age indicators in beef cattle: Effects of the production system and growth promotants. Meat Science 99: 146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lorenzen, C.L., D.S. Hale, D.B. Griffin, J.W. Savell, K.E. Belk, T.L. Frederick, et al. 1993. National Beef quality Audit: Survey of producer-related defects and carcass quality and quantity attributes. Journal of Animal Science 71: 1495–1502.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Lorenzen, C.L., T.R. Neely, R.K. Miller, J.D. Tatum, J.W. Wise, J.F. Taylor, M.J. Buyk, J.O. Reagan, and J.W. Savell. 1999. Beef Customer Satisfaction: Trained sensory panel ratings and Warner-Bratzler shear force values. Journal of Animal Science 81: 143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lorenzen, C.L., R.K. Miller, J.F. Taylor, T.R. Neely, J.D. Tatum, J.W. Wise, M.J. Buyck, J.O. Reagan, and J.W. Savell. 2003. Beef customer satisfaction: trained sensory panel ratings and Warner-Bratzler shear force values. Journal of Animal Science 81: 143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. May, S.G., H.G. Dolezal, D.R. Gill, F.K. Ray, and D.S. Buchanan. 1992. Effects of days fed, carcass grade traits, and subcutaneous fat removal on post-mortem muscle characteristics and beef palatability. Journal of Animal Science 70: 444–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McKeith, R.O., G.D. Gray, D.S. Hale, C.R. Kerth, D.B. Griffin, J.W. Savell, C.R. Raines, K.E. Belk, D.R. Woerner, J.D. Tatum, J.L. Igo, D.L. VanOverbeke, G.G. Mafi, T.E. Lawrence, R.J. Delmore, L.M. Christensen, S.D. Shackelford, D.A. King, T.L. Wheeler, L.R. Meadows, and M.E. O’Connor. 2012. National Beef Quality Audit – 2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Journal of Animal Science 90: 5135–5142.  https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5477.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Miller, R.K., J.D. Tatum, H.R. Cross, R.A. Bowling, and R.P. Clayton. 1983. Effects of carcass maturity on collagen solubility and palatability of beef from grain-finished steers. Journal of Food Science 48: 484–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Modzelewska-Kapituła, M., E. Dąbrowska, B. Jankowska, A. Kwiatkowska, and M. Cierach. 2012. The effect of muscle, cooking method and final internal temperature on quality parameters of beef roast. Meat Science 91: 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Moody, W.B., and R.G. Cassens. 1968. A quantitative and morphological study of bovine longissimus fat cells. Journal of Food Science 33: 47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Moore, C., P. Bass, M. Green, P. Chapman, M. Connor, L. Yates, .et al. 2010. Establishing an appropriate mode of comparison for measuring the performance of marbling score output from video image analysis beef carcass grading systems. Journal of Animal Science 88:2464–2475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Moore, M.C., G.D. Gray, D.S. Hale, C.R. Kerth, D.B. Griffin, J.W. Savell., .et. al. 2012. National Beef Quality Audit-2011. In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers. Journal of Animal Science 90:5143–5151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Morgan, J.B., J.W. Savell, D.S. Hale, R.K. Miller, D.B. Griffin, H.R. Cross, et al. 1991. National Beef tenderness survey. Journal of Animal Science 69: 3274–3283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Motoyama, M., K. Sasaki, and A. Watanabe. 2016. Wagyu and the factors contributing to its beef quality: A Japanese industry overview. Meat Science 120: 10–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mottram, D.S. 1998. Flavour formation in meat and meat products: A review. Food Chemistry 62: 415–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Neely, T.R., C.L. Lorenzen, R.K. Miller, J.D. Tatum, J.W. Wise, J.F. Taylor, M.J. Buyck, J.O. Reagan, and J.W. Savell. 1998. Beef customer satisfaction: Role of cut, USDA quality grade, and city on in-home consumer ratings. Journal of Animal Science 76: 1027–1033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. ———. 1999. Beef Customer Satisfaction: Cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top round steaks. Journal of Animal Science 77: 653–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nielsen, A.R., and B.K. Pedersen. 2007. The biological roles of exercise-induced cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, and IL-15. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 32: 833–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nishimura, T., A. Hattori, and K. Takahashi. 1999. Structural changes in intramuscular connective tissue during the fattening of Japanese black cattle: Effect of marbling on beef tenderization. Journal of Animal Science 77: 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Polkinghorne, R.J., and J.M. Thompson. 2010. Meat standards and grading: A world view. Meat Science 86: 227–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Polkinghorne, R., J. Thompson, R. Watson, A. Gee, and M. Porter. 2008a. Evolution of the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) beef grading system. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48: 1351–1359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Polkinghorne, R., R. Watson, J.M. Thompson, and D.W. Pethick. 2008b. Current usage and future development of the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading system. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48: 1459–1464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Polkinghorne, R., T. Nishimura, K.E. Neath, and R. Watson. 2011. Japanese consumer categorisation of beef into quality grades, based onMeat Standards Australiamethodology. Animal Science Journal 82: 325–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Raines, C.R., M.E. Dikeman, J.A. Unruh, M.C. Hunt, and R.C. Knock. 2008. Predicting cattle age from eye lens weight and nitrogen content, dentition, and United States Department of Agriculture maturity score. Journal of Animal Science 86: 3557–3567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Roy, B., ed. 1996. Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding, 316. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  69. Savell, J.W., H.R. Cross, and G.C. Smith. 1986. Percentage ether extractible fat and moisture content of beef longissimus muscle as related to USDA marbling score. Journal of Food Science 51: 838–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Savell, J.W., C.L. Lorenzen, T.R. Neely, R.K. Miller, J.D. Tatum, J.W. Wise, J.F. Taylor, M.J. Buyck, and J.O. Reagan. 1999. Beef Customer Satisfaction: Cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top sirloin steak. Journal of Animal Science 77: 645–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Semler, M.L., D.R. Woerner, K.E. Belk, K.J. Enns, and J.D. Tatum. 2016. Effects of USDA carcass maturity on sensory attributes of steaks produced by cattle representing two dental age classes. Jounal of Animal Science 94: 2207–2217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Smith, S.B., and J.D. Crouse. 1984. Relative contributions of acetate, lactate and glucose to lipogenesis in bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The Journal of Nutrition 114: 792–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Smith, G.C., J.W. Savell, H.G. Dolezoll, T.G. Field, D.R. Gill, and D.B. Griffin. 1995. Improving the quality, consistency, competitiveness, and market share of beef: the final report of the second blueprint for total quality management in the fed-beef (slaughter steer/heifer) industry. National Beef Quality Audit-1995.Google Scholar
  74. Smith, S.B., K.C. Lin, J.J. Wilson, D.K. Lunt, and H.R. Cross. 1998b. Starvation depresses acylglycerol biosynthesis in bovine subcutaneous but not intramuscular adipose tissue homogenates. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 120B: 165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Smith, S.B., D.K. Lunt, and M. Zembayashi. 2000b. Intramuscular fat deposition: the physiological process and the potential for its manipulation. Proceedingss of 2000 Plains Nutrition Council.Google Scholar
  76. Smith, G.C., J. Tatum, K. Belk, and J. Scanga. 2005a. Beef carcass quality and yield grading in the USA, Canada and Australia. II Jornada Tecnica de la Fundación ANETIF, Mexico City, 13–14 June 2005, 1–8.Google Scholar
  77. Smith, R.D., K.L. Nicholson, J.D.W. Nicholson, K.B. Harris, R.K. Miller, D.B. Griffin, and J.W. Savell. 2008a. Dry versus wet aging of beef: Retail cutting yields and consumer palatability evaluations of steaks from US Choice and US Select short loins. Meat Science 79: 631–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sullivan, G.A., and C.R. Calkins. 2011. Ranking beef muscles from Warner–Bratzler shear force and trained sensory panel ratings from published literature. Journal of Food Quality 34: 195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tatum, D. 2012. Beef Grading. Department of Animal Science, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado. Available at www.beefresearch.org/CMDocs/BeefResearch/Beef%20Grading.pdf
  80. Thompson, J. 2002. Managing meat tenderness. Meat Science 62: 295–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Thompson, J.M., R. Polkinghorne, I.H. Hwang, A.M. Gee, S.H. Cho, B.Y. Park, and J.M. Lee. 2008. Beef quality grades as determined by Korean and Australian consumers. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48: 1380–1386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Thompson, J., R. Polkinghorne, A. Gee, D. Motiang, P. Strydom, M. Mashau, J. Ng’ambi, R. de Kock, and H. Burrow. 2010. Beef palatability in the Republic of South Africa: Implications for niche-marketing strategies. ACIAR Tech. Rpt. 72Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.Google Scholar
  83. Tian, Y.Q., D.G. McCall, W. Dripps, Q. Yu, and P. Gong. 2005. Using computer vision technology to evaluate the meat tenderness of grazing beef. Food Australia 57: 322–326.Google Scholar
  84. USDA. 1996. Standards for grades of slaughter cattle and standards for grades of carcass beef. Agricultural Marketing Services, USDA. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  85. Van Donkersgoed, J., G. Jewison, M. Mann, B. Cherry, B. Altwasser, R. Lower, K. Wiggins, R. Dejonge, B. Thorlakson, E. Moss, C. Mills, and H. Grogan. 1997. Canadian beef quality audit. The Canadian Veterinary Journal 38: 217–225.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Van Donkersgoed, J., G. Jewison, S. Bygrove, K. Gillis, D. Malchow, and G. McLeod. 2001. Canadian beef quality audit 1998–99. The Canadian Veterinary Journal 42: 121–126.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Verbeke, W., F.J.A. Perez-Cueto, M.D. de Barcellos, A. Krystallis, and K.G. Grunert. 2010a. European citizen and consumer attitudes and preferences regarding beef and pork. Meat Science 84: 284–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Verbeke, W., L. Van Wezemael, M.D. de Barcellos, J.O. Kugler, J.F. Hocquette, O. Ueland, and K.G. Grunert. 2010b. European beef consumers’ interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Insights from a qualitative study in four EU countries. Appetite 54: 289–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Voges, K.L., C.L. Mason, J.C. Brooks, R.J. Delmore, D.B. Griffin, D.S. Hale, W.R. Henning, D.D. Johnson, C.L. Lorenzen, R.J. Maddock, R.K. Miller, J.B. Morgan, B.E. Baird, B.L. Gwartney, and J.F. Savell. 2007. National beef tenderness survey-2006: Assessment of Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory panel ratings for beef from US retail and foodservice establishments. Meat Science 77: 357–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Watson, R., R. Polkinghorne, and J. Thompson. 2008. Development of the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) prediction model for beef palatability. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48: 1368–1379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Webb, E.C., and H.A. O’Neill. 2008. The animal fat paradox and meat quality. Meat Science 80: 28–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wheeler, T.L., L.V. Cundiff, and R.M. Koch. 1994. Effect of marbling degree on beef palatability in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. Journal of Animal Science 72: 3145–3151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and Science Press 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph William Holloway
    • 1
  • Jianping Wu
    • 2
  1. 1.Animal ScienceTexas A&M UniversityUvaldeUSA
  2. 2.Gansu Academy of Agricultural SciencesLanzhouChina

Personalised recommendations