• Jianfang Ma
  • Rui Zeng


Syncope is defined as a transient loss of consciousness associated with cerebral hypoperfusion that can be improved by recumbent posture without any residual deficits. Presyncope, which is a prodrome of syncope, often presents with symptoms like dizziness, lightheadedness, tremulousness, sweating, nausea, imbalance, vertigo and palpitations. On certain circumstance, syncope can be presented as urinary incontinence and abnormal movements during the state of unconsciousness, such as convulsion, etc.

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianfang Ma
    • 1
  • Rui Zeng
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyShanghai Jiaotong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of CardiologySichuan UniversityChengduChina

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