• Jialin Chen
  • Rui Zeng


Hematuria (haematuria) is a common symptom of urinary system diseases. Normal people’s urine has a small amount of red blood cells. The definition of hematuria is: (a) red blood cell of fresh urine is more than three per high-power field in microscopic examination after centrifugation (10 mL of urine to 1500 rpm for 5 min), (b) direct counting red blood cells of fresh urine is more than 8000/mL, (c) per hour of red blood cell discharge number more than 30,000 for male and more than 40,000 for women in 3 h urine cell counting, (d) 12 h urine Addis count red cell more than 5 × 10^6. Mild hematuria is only seen blood cell increased under the microscope, called microscopic hematuria. Bleeding bulls’ urine color is usually like water of wash the meat, tea colored or red, called as the naked eye hematuria. Hematuria first need to rule out false hematuria caused by menstruation, vaginal or rectal bleeding, in addition to the normal human after strenuous exercise, urine red blood cells can be increased temporarily to 10,000–60,000/mL.

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jialin Chen
    • 1
  • Rui Zeng
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicinePeking Union Medical CollegeBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of CardiologySichuan UniversityChengduChina

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