• Ke Wang
  • Rui Zeng


Dyspnea is usually described subjectively by the patient as “shortness of breath” or “out of breath”, objectively manifests as overexertion in breathing motion. If the symptom becomes worse, it is always accompanied by mouth breathing, dilatation of nares, orthopnea, cyanosis, using of accessory muscles of respiration and abnormalities of respiratory rate such as depths or rhythms.

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ke Wang
    • 1
  • Rui Zeng
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RespiratoryJilin UniversityChangchunChina
  2. 2.Department of CardiologySichuan UniversityChengduChina

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