Wetland as a Sustainable Reservoir of Ecosystem Services: Prospects of Threat and Conservation

  • Govind Gupta
  • Jabbar Khan
  • Atul Kumar Upadhyay
  • Naveen Kumar Singh


A wetland is a type of ecosystem saturated with water throughout the year possessing various ecosystem services in the environment. Wetland is composed of abiotic and biotic components and acts naturally as a reservoir of food, shelter, and habitat for biological communities. Increasing human population leads to more industrialization and urbanization which continuously alter the landscape and interfering nutrient cycling. Further, changes in precipitation pattern and global climate leading to hydrological and environmental imbalances cause frequent flood and drought. As a result of rapid development and human interference, wetland ecosystem is degrading day by day which needs to be conserved for environmental sustainability. Microbial communities play an important role in nutrient cycling and conservation of wetland.


Wetland Biological communities Ecosystem services Nutrient cycling 


  1. Aber JS, Pavri F, Aber S (2012) Wetland environments: a global perspective. Wiley, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad N (1980) Some aspects of economic resources of Sunderbans mangrove forests of Bangladesh. In: Soepadmo P (ed) Mangrove environment: research and management. University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, pp 50–51Google Scholar
  3. Anon (1991) World resources 1991–1992. Oxford University Press, New York, p 291Google Scholar
  4. Anon (1993) Directory of Indian wetlands. World Wildlife Federation, New Delhi, p 264Google Scholar
  5. Aselmann I, Crutzen PJ (1989) Global distribution of natural freshwater wetlands and rice paddies, their net primary productivity, seasonality and possible methane emissions. J Atmos Chem 8:307–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boon PI, Virtue P, Nichols PD (1996) Microbial consortia in wetland sediments: a biomarker analysis of the effects of hydrological regime, vegetation and season on benthic microorganisms. Mar Freshw Res 47:27–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borga P, Nilsson M, Tunlid A (1994) Bacterial communities in peat in relation to botanical composition as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Soil Biol Biochem 26:841–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chaudhry FN, Malik MF (2017) Factors affecting water pollution: a review. J Ecosyst Ecography 7:2157–7625Google Scholar
  9. Chopra R (1985) The state of India’s environment. Ambassador Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  10. Constanza RR, D’Arge R, de Groot S, Farber M et al (1997) The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cowardin LM, Carter V, Golet FC, LaRoe ET (1979) Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Services Program FWS/OBS-79131Google Scholar
  12. Davidsson TE, Stepanauskas R, Leonardson L (1997) Vertical patterns in nitrogen transformations during infiltration in two wetland soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:3648–3656Google Scholar
  13. Davis JA, Froend R (1999) Loss and degradation of wetlands in southwestern Australia: underlying causes, consequences and solutions. Wetl Ecol Manag 7(1–2):13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dedysh SN (2002) Methanotrophic bacteria of acidic Sphagnum peat bogs. Microbiol Moscow 71:638–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dedysh SN, Panikov NS, Liesack W, Grosskopf R, Jizong Z, Tiedje JM (1998) Isolation of acidophilic methane- oxidizing bacteria from northern peat wetlands. Science 282:281–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Enwall K, Philippot L, Hallin S (2005) Activity and composition of the denitrifying bacterial community respond differently to long-term fertilization. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:8335–8343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Federal Geographic Data Committee (2013) Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FGDC-STD-004-2013, 2nd edn. Wetlands Subcommittee, Federal Geographic Data Committee and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  18. Foote AL, Pandey S, Krogman NT (1996) Processes of wetland loss in India. Environ Conserv 23:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Freeman C, Ostle N, Kang H (2001) An enzymic ‘latch’ on a global carbon store. Nature 409:149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Funge-Smith SJ, Briggs MR (1998) Nutrient budgets in intensive shrimp ponds: implications for sustainability. Aquaculture 164:117–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gingerich RT, Panaccione DG, Anderson JT (2015) The role of fungi and invertebrates in litter decomposition in mitigated and reference wetlands. Limnol-Ecol Manag Inland Waters 54:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gopal B (1994) Conservation of inland waters in India: an overview. Verh Internationalen Ver Theorestische Angew Limnol 25:2492–2497Google Scholar
  23. Groot R, Brander L, van der PS, Costanza R et al (2012) Ecosyst Serv 1:50–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hartman WH, Richardson CJ, Vilgalys R, Bruland GL (2008) Environmental and anthropogenic controls over bacterial communities in wetland soils. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:17842–17847. 0808254105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Junk WJ, An S, Finlayson CM, Gopal B, Květ J, Mitchell SA, Mitsch WJ, Robarts RD (2013) Current state of knowledge regarding the world’s wetlands and their future under global climate change: a synthesis. Aquat Sci 75:151–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Keddy PA (2010) Wetland ecology: principles and conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kercher SM, Zedler JB (2004) Multiple disturbances accelerate invasion of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) in a mesocosm study. Oecologia 138:455–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lamers LPM, Van Diggelen JMH, OpDenCamp HJM, Visser EJW, Lucassen ECHET, Vile MA (2012) Microbial transformations of nitrogen, sulfur, and iron dictate vegetation composition in wetlands: a review. Front Microbiol 3:156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Max Finlayson C (2012) Forty years of wetland conservation and wise use. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshwat Ecosyst 22:139–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McAllister DE (1991) What is the status of the world’s coral reef fishes. Sea Wind 5:14–18Google Scholar
  31. Mentzer JL, Goodman R, Balser TC (2006) Microbial seasonal response to hydrologic and fertilization treatments in a simulated wet prairie. Plant Soil 284:85–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mitchell S, Gopal B (1990) Invasion of tropical freshwater by alien species. In: Ramakrishnan PS (ed) Ecology of biological invasion in the tropics. International Scientific Publications, New Delhi, pp 139–154Google Scholar
  33. Mitsch WJ, Cronk JK, Wu X, Nairn RW, Hey DL (1995) Phosphorus retention in constructed freshwater riparian marshes. Ecol Appl 5:830–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Moberg F, Folke C (1999) Ecological goods and services of coral reef ecosystems. Ecol Econ 29:215–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Moore DR, Keddy PA, Gaudet CL, Wisheu IC (1989) Conservation of wetlands: do infertile wetlands deserve a higher priority? Biol Conserv 47:203–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. National Research Council (1999) New strategies for America’s watersheds. National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  37. Naylor RL, Goldburg RJ, Primavera JH, Kautsky N, Beveridge MC, Clay J, Folke C, Lubchenco J, Mooney H, Troell M (2000) Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature 405:1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nel JL, Roux DJ, Abell R, Ashton PJ, Cowling RM et al (2009) Progress and challenges in freshwater conservation planning. Aquat Conserv Mar Fresh Water Ecosyst 19:474–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Prasad SN, Ramachandra TV, Ahalya N, Sengupta T, Kumar A, Tiwari AK, Vijayan VS, Vijayan L (2002) Conservation of wetlands of India-a review. Trop Ecol 43:173–186Google Scholar
  40. Quental N, Lourenço JM, Da Silva FN (2011) Sustainable development policy: goals, targets and political cycles. Sustain Dev 19:15–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rai UN, Tripathi RD, Singh NK, Upadhyay AK, Dwivedi S, Shukla MK, Mallick S, Singh SN, Nautiyal CS (2013) Constructed wetland as an ecotechnological tool for pollution treatment for conservation of Ganga river. Bioresour Technol 148:535–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rai UN, Upadhyay AK, Singh NK (2015) Constructed wetland: an ecotechnology for wastewater treatment and conservation of Ganga water quality. In: Environmental sustainability. Springer, New Delhi, pp 251–264Google Scholar
  43. Saber M, Hussain FA, Hoballah EM, Haggag WM, Zaghloul Alaa El-Din M (2016) Sewage farming: benefits and adverse effects. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 7:297Google Scholar
  44. Samant S (1999) Prioritization of biological conservation sites in India wetland. In: Singh S, Sastry ARK, Mehta R, Uppal V (eds) Setting biodiversity conservation priorities for India. World Wide Fund for Nature, India, New Delhi, pp 155–167Google Scholar
  45. Segarra KEA, Schubotz F, Samarkin V, Yoshinaga MY, Hinrichs KU, Joye SB (2015) High rates of anaerobic methane oxidation in freshwater wetlands reduce potential atmospheric methane emissions. Nat Commun 6:7477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Singh R, Upadhyay AK, Singh DP (2018) Regulation of oxidative stress and mineral nutrient status by selenium in arsenic treated crop plant Oryza sativa. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 148:105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Spalding MD, Grenfell AM (1997) New estimates of global and regional coral reef areas. Coral Reefs 16:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sundh I, Nilsson M, Borga P (1997) Variation in microbial community structure in two boreal peatlands as determined by analysis of phospholipids fatty acid profiles. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:1476–1482Google Scholar
  49. Talukdar S, Pal S (2017) Impact of dam on inundation regime of flood plain wetland of Punarbhaba river basin of Barind tract of Indo-Bangladesh. Int Soil Water Conserv Res 5:109–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Upadhyay AK, Singh NK, Bankoti NS, Rai UN (2017) Designing and construction of simulated constructed wetland for treatment of sewage containing metals. Environ Technol 38:2691–2699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vörösmarty CJ, McIntyre PB, Gessner MO, Dudgeon D, Prusevich A, Green P, Glidden S, Bunn SE, Sullivan CA, Liermann CR, Davies PM (2010) Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature 467:555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vymazal J (2011) Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: five decades of experience. Environ Sci Technol 45:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Whigham DF (1999) Ecological issues related to wetland preservation, restoration, creation and assessment. Sci Total Environ 240:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yamamoto T, Takaki K, Koyama T, Furukawa K (2008) Long-term stability of partial nitrification of swine wastewater digester liquor and its subsequent treatment by anammox. Bioresour Technol 99:6419–6425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zedler JB, Kercher S (2005) Wetland resources: status, trends, ecosystem services, and restorability. Annu Rev Environ Resour 30:39–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhang K, Yu Z, Li X, Zhou W, Zhang D (2007) Land use change and land degradation in China from 1991 to 2001. Land Degrad Dev 18:209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zumft WG (1992) The denitrifying prokaryotes. In: Balows A, Trüper HG, Dworkin M, Harder W, Schleifer KH (eds) The prokaryotes. Springer, New York, pp 554–582Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Govind Gupta
    • 1
  • Jabbar Khan
    • 1
  • Atul Kumar Upadhyay
    • 2
  • Naveen Kumar Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Science Discipline, Department of Chemistry, School of Basic SciencesManipal University JaipurJaipurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental ScienceBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)LucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations