Advertisement

Restoration, Construction, and Conservation of Degrading Wetlands: A Step Toward Sustainable Management Practices

  • Ibha Suhani
  • Monika
  • Barkha Vaish
  • Pooja Singh
  • Rajeev Pratap Singh
Chapter

Abstract

In the current scenario, the world is facing various water-related issues, for instance, water shortage, degradation of water resources, pollution of aquatic systems, and proliferation of waterborne diseases. Moreover, the condition is getting worse in the developing economies because of the integrated effect of anthropogenic activities, escalating demand of resources, and the population explosion. In various developed countries, traditional centralized sewage treatment systems were used for combating water pollution. With the advancement of technologies, wastewater treatment (WWT) systems like activated sludge process, membrane separation, membrane bioreactors, etc. are being employed for treatment of water pollution. However, these expensive systems are not feasible enough for the widespread application along with they are not capable to treat water according to WWT standards. Thus, it is imperative to shift toward the natural way of water purification. In order to meet this demand, protection, restoration, and sustainable use of natural wetlands are essential because of being big reservoir of water on the earth. The present chapter comprehensively describes the importance of natural and artificial wetland (constructed wetland) for human beings toward achieving sustainable environment in a simple, manageable, and cost-effective way.

Keywords

Wetland Wastewater Constructed wetland Sustainability Restoration 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to the Dean and Head, Department of Environment and Sustainable Development, and Director, Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, for providing necessary facilities. RPS is thankful to the Department of Science and Technology for providing financial support (DST-SERB P07-678). BV is also thankful to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research for awarding Senior Research Fellowship.

References

  1. Adam E, Mutanga O, Rugege D (2010) Multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing for identification and mapping of wetland vegetation: a review. Wetl Ecol Manag 18:281–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams VM, Pressey RL, Naidoo R (2010) Opportunity costs: who really pays for conservation. Biol Conserv 143:439–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali H, Khan E, Sajad MA (2013) Phytoremediation of heavy metals—concepts and applications. Chemosphere 91(7):869–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anon (1994) World resources 1994–1995. A report by the world resources institute. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Badhe N, Saha S, Biswas R, Nandy T (2014) Role of algal biofilm in improving the performance of free surface, up-flow constructed wetland. Bioresour Technol 169:596–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bastyan GR, Cambridge ML (2008) Transplantation as a method for restoring the seagrass Posidonia australis. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 79:289–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowman M (2002) The Ramsar Convention on wetlands: has it made a difference. Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development, pp 61–68Google Scholar
  8. Boyer T, Polasky S (2004) Valuing urban wetlands: a review of non-market valuation studies. Wetlands 24:744–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brinson MM, Malvárez AI (2002) Temperate freshwater wetlands: types, status, and threats. Environ Conserv 29:115–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brix H (1993) Wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands: system design, removal processes, and treatment performance. In: Moshiri GA (ed) Constructed wetlands for water quality improvement. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 9–22Google Scholar
  11. Brockington D, Wilkie D (2015) Protected areas and poverty. Philos Trans R Soc B 370(1681):20140271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burkholder JM, Tomasko DA, Touchette BW (2007) Seagrasses and eutrophication. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 350:46–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen KL, Zhang XH, Lu Y (2003) Climate change and wetland. Wetl Sci 1:73–77Google Scholar
  14. Cherry JA (2012) Ecology of wetland ecosystems: water, substrate, and life. Nat Educ Knowl 3:16Google Scholar
  15. Clarkson BR, Ausseil AGE, Gerbeaux P (2013) Wetland ecosystem services. Ecosystem services in New Zealand: conditions and trends. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln, pp 192–202Google Scholar
  16. Cooke GD, Welch EB, Peterson SA (2013) Lake and reservoir restoration. ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  17. Cui L, Ouyang Y, Lou Q, Yang F, Chen Y, Zhu W, Luo S (2010) Removal of nutrients from wastewater with Canna indica L. under different vertical-flow constructed wetland conditions. Ecol Eng 36:1083–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davis JA, Froend R (1999, Jun 1) Loss and degradation of wetlands in southwestern Australia: underlying causes, consequences and solutions. Wetl Ecol Manag 7(1–2):13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ducks Unlimited Canada (2010) Southern Ontario wetland conservation analysis. Report prepared by Ducks Unlimited CanadaGoogle Scholar
  20. Engelhardt KA, Ritchie ME (2001) Effects of macrophyte species richness on wetland ecosystem functioning and services. Nature 411:687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Engelhardt KA, Ritchie ME (2002) The effect of aquatic plant species richness on wetland ecosystem processes. Ecology 83:2911–2924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Erwin KL (2009) Wetlands and global climate change: the role of wetland restoration in a changing world. Wetl Ecol Manag 17:71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Faulkner S et al (2011) Effects of conservation practices on wetland ecosystem services in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Ecol Appl 21(sp1):S31–S48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ferrati R, Canziani GA (2005, Jul 25) An analysis of water level dynamics in Esteros del Ibera wetland. Ecol Model 186(1):17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Festinger L (1957) A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford University PressGoogle Scholar
  26. Fonseca MS, Kenworthy WJ, Courtney FX, Hall MO (1994) Seagrass planting in the southeastern United States: methods for accelerating habitat development. Restor Ecol 2:198–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Frazier S (1999) Ramsar sites overview. Wetlands International, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  28. Gosselink JG, Turner RE (1978) The role of hydrology in freshwater wetland ecosystems. In: Good RE, Whigham& DF, Simpson RL (eds) Freshwater wetlands: ecological Processes and management potential. Academic, New York, pp 63–78Google Scholar
  29. Groffman PM, Stylinski C, Nisbet MC, Duarte CM, Jordan R, Burgin A, Previtali MA, Coloso J (2010) Restarting the conversation: challenges at the interface between ecology and society. Front Ecol Environ 8(6):284–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hansson LA, Brönmark C, Anders Nilsson P, Åbjörnsson K (2005) Conflicting demands on wetland ecosystem services: nutrient retention, biodiversity or both? Freshw Biol 50(4):705–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hofmann K (1991) The role of plants in sub-surfaces flow constructed wetlands. In: Ecological engineering for wastewater treatment. Stensund (Sweden)Google Scholar
  32. Jonna S (1999) Remote sensing applications to water resources: retrospective and Perspective. In: Adiga S (ed) Proceedings of ISRS National symposium on remote sensing applications for natural resources, Dehradun, pp 368–377Google Scholar
  33. Kari S, Korhonen-Kurki K (2013) Framing local outcomes of biodiversity conservation through ecosystem services: a case study from Ranomafana, Madagascar. Ecosyst Serv 3:32–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Klimkowska A, Van Diggelen R, Bakker JP, Grootjans AP (2007) Wet meadow restoration in Western Europe: a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of several techniques. Biol Conserv 140(3–4):318–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kollmuss A, Agyeman J (2002) Mind the gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environ Educ Res 8(3):239–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Konikow LF, Kendy E (2005) Groundwater depletion: a global problem. Hydrogeol J 13(1):317–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Liu L, Liu Y-h, Liu C-x, Wang Z, Dong J, Zhu G-f, Huang X (2013) Potential effect and accumulation of veterinary antibiotics in Phragmites australis under hydroponic conditions. Ecol Eng 53:138–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Maltby E (1991) Wetland management goals: wise use and conservation. Landsc Urban Plan 20(1–3):9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McShane TO, Hirsch PD, Trung TC, Songorwa AN, Kinzig A, Monteferri B, Mutekanga D, Van Thang H, Dammert JL, Pulgar-Vidal M, Welch-Devine M (2011) Hard choices: making trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and human Well-being. Biol Conserv 144(3):966–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Miller TR, Minteer BA, Malan LC (2011) The new conservation debate: the view from practical ethics. Biol Conserv 144(3):948–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG (1986) Wetlands. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG (2000) The value of wetlands: importance of scale and landscape setting. Ecol Econom 35(1):25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ozesmi SL, Bauer ME (2002) Satellite remote sensing of wetlands. Wetl Ecol Manag 10(5):381–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Paling EI, Fonseca M, van Katwijk MM, van Keulen M (2009) Seagrass restoration. Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approach, pp 687–713Google Scholar
  45. Pfadenhauer J, Klötzli F (1996) Restoration experiments in middle European wet terrestrial ecosystems: an overview. Vegetation 126(1):101–115Google Scholar
  46. Plans S et al (2009) Strategic framework and guidelines for the future development of the list of Wetlands of International Importance of the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971)Google Scholar
  47. Prasad SN, Ramachandra TV, Ahalya N, Sengupta T, Kumar A, Tiwari AK, Vijayan L (2002) Conservation of wetlands of India-a review. Trop Ecol 43(1):173–186Google Scholar
  48. Rai UN, Tripathi RD, Singh NK, Upadhyay AK, Dwivedi S, Shukla MK, Mallick S, Singh SN, Nautiyal CS (2013) Constructed wetland as anecotechnological tool for pollution treatment for conservation of ganga river. Bioresour Technol 1(148):535–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rao HVN (1997) Restoration of Ulsoor Lake, Bangalore. In: Proceedings of one – day workshop on lakes for Bangalore water needs – beautification and pollution prevention, Environment Association of Bangalore, pp 20–24Google Scholar
  50. Roulet NT (1990) Hydrology of a headwater basin wetland: groundwater discharge and wetland maintenance. Hydrol Process 4(4):387–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Russi D, ten Brink P, Farmer A, Badura T, Coates D, Förster J, Kumar R, Davidson N (2013) The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity for water and wetlands. IEEP, London, p 78Google Scholar
  52. Saeed T, Sun G (2012) A review on nitrogen and organics removal mechanisms in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: dependency on environmental parameters, operating conditions and supporting media. J Environ Manag 112:429–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Samantha SK et al (2016) Public support for wetland restoration: what is the link with ecosystem service values? 36:467–481.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-016-0755-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sasmal SK, PLN Raju (1996) Monitoring suspended load in estuarine waters of Hooghly with satellite data using PC based GIS environment. In: Proceedings of National symposium on coastal zone managementGoogle Scholar
  55. Sebastiá-Frasquet MT, Altur V, Sanchis JA (2014) Wetland planning: current problems and environmental management proposals at supra-municipal scale (Spanish Mediterranean Coast). Water 6:620–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Smith P, House JI, Bustamante M, Sobocká J, Harper R, Pan G, West PC, Clark JM, Adhya T, Rumpel C, Paustian K (2016) Global change pressures on soils from land use and management. Global Chan Biol 22:1008–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Southworth J, Nagendra H, Munroea Darla K (2006) Introduction to the special issue: are parks working? Exploring human–environment tradeoffs in protected area conservation. Appl Geogr 26(2):87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Turner BL, Meyer WB, Skole DL (1994) Global land-use/land-cover change: towards an integrated study. Ambio Stockholm 23(1):91–95Google Scholar
  59. Upadhyay AK, Bankoti NS, Rai UN (2016, Mar 16) Studies on sustainability of simulated constructed wetland system for treatment of urban waste: design and operation. J Environ Manag 169:285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Van Katwijk MM, Bos AR, de Jong VN, Hanssen LSAM, Hermus DCR, de Jong DJ (2009) Guidelines for seagrass restoration: the importance of habitat selection and donor population, spreading of risks, and ecosystem engineering effects. Mar Pollut Bull 58:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vymazal J (2013) The use of hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment with special attention to nitrogen removal: a review of a recent development. Water Res 47:4795–4811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wondie A (2010) Improving management of shoreline and riparian wetland ecosystems: the case of Lake Tana catchment. Ecohydrol Hydrobiol 10:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wu S, Kuschk P, Brix H, Vymazal J, Dong R (2014) Development of constructed wetlands in performance intensifications for wastewater treatment: a nitrogen and organic matter targeted review. Water Res 57:40–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yuan L, Zhang LQ, Xiao DR, Zhang J, Wang RZ, Yuan LQ, Gu ZQ, Chen X, Ping Y, Zhu ZC (2008) A demonstration study using the integrated technique of cutting plus waterlogging for the control of Spartina alterniflora. Acta Ecol Sin 28:5723–5730Google Scholar
  65. Zedler J (2003) Wetlands at your service: reducing impacts of agriculture at the watershed scale. Front Ecol Environ 1:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zedler JB, Kercher S (2005) Wetland resources: status, trends, ecosystem services, and restorability. Annu Rev Environ Resour 30:39–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zhao S, Peng C, Jiang H, Tian D, Lei X, Zhou X (2006) Land use change in Asia and the ecological consequences. Ecol Res 21:890–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zhao Q, Bai J, Huang L, Gu B, Lu Q, Gao Z (2016) A review of methodologies and success indicators for coastal wetland restoration. Ecol Indic 60:442–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ibha Suhani
    • 1
  • Monika
    • 1
  • Barkha Vaish
    • 1
  • Pooja Singh
    • 2
  • Rajeev Pratap Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environment and Sustainable Development, Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development (IESD)Banaras Hindu University (BHU)VaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of ScienceInstitute of Computer Science and Technology, SHEPAVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations