Advertisement

E-C Translation as Conquest in the Late Qing 1811–1911

  • Xiaojia Huang
Chapter

Abstract

The wealth and prosperity of the Orient, particularly of the Middle Kingdom portrayed in Marco Polo’s adventures had been such an enduring stimulator to the Occident that when the distance between the East and West was drastically bridged by the advances of navigation technology in the sixteenth century, the Westerners commenced to transcend their own continent to seek their fortune in the rest of the world—Africa, America, Oceania and Asia, thus creating the new era of colonization.

References

  1. Addison Wesley Longman China Limited. (1998). Longman dictionary of contemporary English. Beijing: The Commercial Press.Google Scholar
  2. Anghie, A. (2004). Imperialism, sovereignty and the making of international law. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Augustyn, A., Bauer, P., Duignan, B., Eldridge, A., Gregersen, E., Luebering, J.E., … Zelazko, A. (2006). Chinese rites controversy (Roman Catholicism). In Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/event/Chinese-Rites-Controversy.
  4. Auslin, M. R. (2004). Negotiating with imperialism: The unequal treaties and the culture of Japanese diplomacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Barr, J. (1977). Fundamentalism. London: SCM.Google Scholar
  6. Beattie, J. (1964). Other cultures: Aims, methods and achievements in social anthropology. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.Google Scholar
  7. Bederman, J. D. (2004). International law in antiquity. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bernard, W. D. (1846). The nemesis in China: Comprising a history of the late war in that country: With an account of the colony of Hong Kong: From notes of captain W. H. Hall and personal observations. London: Henry Colburn Publisher.Google Scholar
  9. Bernard, M. (1868). Four lectures on subjects connected with diplomacy. London: Macmillan and.Google Scholar
  10. Bingham, J. E. (1843). Narrative of the expedition to China from the commencement of the war to its termination in 1842: With sketches of the manners and customs of that singular and hitherto almost unknown country. London: Colburn.Google Scholar
  11. Boone, W. J. (1848, January). An essay on the proper rendering of the words Elohim and θɛus into the Chinese language. The Chinese Repository, 17(1), 17–89.Google Scholar
  12. British and Foreign Bible Society. (1902). The book of God’s kingdom: A popular illustrated report of the British and foreign bible society, 1901–1902. London: The Bible House.Google Scholar
  13. British and Foreign Bible Society. (1906). There is a river: A popular illustrated report of the British and foreign bible society, 1905–1906. London: The Bible House.Google Scholar
  14. British and Foreign Bible Society. (1913). Have ye never read?: A popular illustrated report of the British and foreign bible society, 1912–1913. London: The Bible House.Google Scholar
  15. Browne, G. (1859). The history of the British and foreign bible society: From its institution in 1804, to the close of its jubilee in 1854 (Vol. 1). London: Bagster and Sons.Google Scholar
  16. Cao, Y. (2010). Bupingdeng tiaoyue yu wanqing zhongying maoyi chongtu [Uequal treaties and the Sino-British trade conflicts in the late Qing]. Changsha: Hunan renmin chuanshe.Google Scholar
  17. Chen, J. (2004). Wenhua yu Dongya Xiou guoji zhixu [Culture and international order in East Asia and Western Europe]. Shanghai: Shanghai daxue chubanshe.Google Scholar
  18. Chinese version of the Bible; manuscript in the British museum; one version undertaken in Bengal, and another in China; with brief notices of the means and measures employed to publish the Scriptures in Chinese previous to A. D. 1830. (1835, October). The Chinese Repository, 4 (6), 249–261.Google Scholar
  19. Cox, J. (2008). The British missionary enterprise since 1700. New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Fairbank, J. K. (1969). Trade and diplomacy on the China coast: The opening of the treaty ports 1842–1854. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Fairbank, J. K. (Ed.). (1978). The Cambridge history of China Vol. 10: Late Ch’ing, 1800–1911 (part 1). London/New York/Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Fang, J. C. (2000). Chaoshan diqu zhongying jiaoshe shushi [Episodes in Sino-British diplomatic affairs at Chaozhou-Shantou area]. Shantou Daxue Xuebao [Shantou University Journal], 16(3), 79–88.Google Scholar
  23. Foley, T. S. (2009). Biblical translation in Chinese and Greek—Verbal aspect in theory and practice. Leiden/Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  24. Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press. (2005). A modern English-Chinese Chinese-English dictionary. Beijing: Author.Google Scholar
  25. Gong, D. Y. (2009). Jindai Jidujiao he Rujiao de jiechu [The contact between Christianity and Confucianism in modern times]. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe.Google Scholar
  26. Graebner, A. L. (1910). Outlines of doctrinal theology. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  27. Grasso, J., Corrin, J., & Kort, M. (2004). Modernization and revolution in China: From the opium wars to world power (3rd ed.). New York: M. E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  28. Guo, W. (2003). Zhuanzhe: Yi zaoqi zhongying guanxi he Nanjing tiaoyue wei kaocha zhongxin [Transition: The early Sino-British relations and the treaty of Nanking]. Shijiazhuang: Hebei renmin chubanshe.Google Scholar
  29. Hanes, W. T., & Sanello, F. (2002). The opium wars: The addiction of one empire and the destruction of another. Naperville: Sourcebooks.Google Scholar
  30. Hornby, A. S. (2002). Oxford advanced learner’s English-Chinese dictionary (4th ed.). Beijing: The Commercial Press.Google Scholar
  31. Hu, B. (1993). Yingguo dang’an youguan yapian zhanzheng ziliao xuanyi (xia ce) [A selected translation of the British archives on the opium war, Vol. 2]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.Google Scholar
  32. Hu, M. X. (2010). Wanqing Zhongying tiaoyue guanxi yanjiu [A study on the Sino-British treaty relations in the late Qing]. Changsha: Hunan renmin chubanshe.Google Scholar
  33. Institute of History, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences (Ed.). (1958). Yapian zhanzheng moqi yingjun zai changjiang zhongxiayou de qinlue zuixing [The British army’s aggression in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river at the end of the opium war]. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe.Google Scholar
  34. Jaggard, A. (2011). Developing spiritual success: The journey of discipleship, the path of spiritual and relational vitality, and the future of the church. Bloomington: authorhouse.Google Scholar
  35. Jia, Z., et al. (Eds.). (1979). Chouban Yiwu shimo (Xianfeng chao) [A retrospect of undertaking the westernization affairs during the reign of Xianfeng emperor]. Beijng: Zhonghua shuju.Google Scholar
  36. Kidd, S. (1839). Critical notices of Dr. Morrison’s literary labours. In R. Morrison (Ed.), Memoirs of the life and labours of Robert Morrison (Vol. 2, pp. 1–87). London: Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans.Google Scholar
  37. LaTourette, K. S. (1937). A history of the expansion of Christianity, Vol. 1: The first five centuries. New York/London: Harper & Brothers.Google Scholar
  38. LaTourette, K. S. (1961). Christianity in a revolutionary age, Vol. 3: A history of Christianity in the nineteenth and twentieth century. New York: Harper & Brothers.Google Scholar
  39. Legge, J. (1852). The notions of the Chinese concerning god and spirits: With an examination of the defense of an essay, on the proper rendering of the words Elohim and Theos, into the Chinese language by William J. Boone. Hongkong Register Office: Hongkong.Google Scholar
  40. Li, D. J. (1969). China in transition, 1517–1911. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.Google Scholar
  41. Li, X. Y. (1987). Li Xingyuan riji (shang ce) [Li Xingyuan’s Diary, Vol. 1]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.Google Scholar
  42. Lin, Z. X., Deng, T. Z., & Yi, L. (February, 1840). Letter to the queen of England, from the high imperial commissioner Lin, and his colleagues. The Chinese Repository, 8(10), 497–593.Google Scholar
  43. Liu, L. H. (2004). The clash of empires: The invention of China in modern world making. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Liu, J. T., & Du, W. P. (1996). Magaerni shihua yanyin mudi yu Nanjing tiaoyue neirong de guanxi tantao [An exploration into the connection between Lord Macartney's reasons and purposes for his embassy to China and the treaty of Nanking]. In Z. L. Zhang & C. D. Cheng (Eds.), Zhongying tongshi erbai zhounian xueshu yantaohui lunwenji [Proceedings of the Chengde conference on the bicentenary of Sino-British relations 1793–1993]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe.Google Scholar
  45. Lowrie, W. M. (1846a, June). Terms for deity to be used in the Chinese version of the bible: The words Shangti, Tien and shin examined and illustrated in a letter to the editor of the Chinese repository. The Chinese Repository, 15 (6): 311–317.Google Scholar
  46. Lowrie, W. M. (1846b, December). Remarks on the words and phrases best suited to express the names of God in Chinese. The Chinese Repository, 15(12): 577–601.Google Scholar
  47. Lu, K. (1993). Fangyi xingui batiao [Eight new rules to defend against barbarians]. In Y. N. Liang (Ed.), Yuehai guanzhi (juan 29) [Canton customs records, Vol. 29]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.Google Scholar
  48. Lualdi, K. J. (2009). Sources of the making of the west, Vol. 1: Peoples and cultures. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins.Google Scholar
  49. Luther, M. (1921). The smalcald articles. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  50. Mantienne, F. (1999). Monseigneur pigneau de béhaine. Paris: Editions Eglises d’Asie.Google Scholar
  51. Mao, H. J. (1995). Tianchao de bengkui:Yapian zhanzheng zai yanjiu [The collapse of the Celestrial empire: A revisit to the opium wars]. Shanghai: Shanghai sanlian shudian.Google Scholar
  52. Mao, H. J. (1998). Jindai de chidu:Liangci yapian zhanzheng junshi yu waijiao [The dimensions of modern times: Military and diplomacy during the two opium wars]. Shanghai: Shanghai sanlian shudian.Google Scholar
  53. Martin, R. H. (1983). Evangelicals united: Ecumenical stirrings in pre-Victorian Britain, 1795–1830. Metuchen: The Scarecrow Press.Google Scholar
  54. Mathison, K. A. (2001). The shape of sola scriptura. Moscow: Canon Press.Google Scholar
  55. Mcneur, G. H. (1935). The missionary in changing China. Dunedin: Otago Daily Times and Witness Newspapers, Ltd..Google Scholar
  56. Medhurst, W. H. (1847a). A dissertation on the theology of the Chinese—With a view to the elucidation of the most appropriate term for expressing the deity in the Chinese language. Shanghae: The Mission Press.Google Scholar
  57. Medhurst, W. H. (1847b, January). Remarks in favor of Shangti and Against Shin, as the proper term to denote the true God, addressed to the editor of the Chinese Repository. The Chinese Repository, 16(1): 34–37.Google Scholar
  58. Medhurst, W. H. (1848a, May). An inquiry into the proper mode of rendering the word God in translating the Sacred Scriptures into the Chinese language. The Chinese Repository, 17 (5): 209–242.Google Scholar
  59. Medhurst, W. H. (1848b, October). Reply to the essay of Dr. Boone on the proper rendering of the words Elohim and θɛus into the Chinese Language (Part 1). The Chinese Repository, 17 (10): 489–574.Google Scholar
  60. Medhurst, W. H. (1848c, December). Reply to the essay of Dr. Boone on the proper rendering of the words Elohim and θɛus into the Chinese language (part 2). The Chinese Repository, 17 (12): 601–646.Google Scholar
  61. Medhurst, W. H. (1849). The true meaning of the word shin, as exhibited in the quotations adduced under that word in the Chinese Imperial thesaurus called the Pei-wan-yun-foo. Shanghae: The Mission Press.Google Scholar
  62. Milne, W. (1820). A retrospect of the first ten years of the protestant mission to China. Malacca: Anglo-Chinese Press.Google Scholar
  63. Mofokeng, T. (1988). Black Christians, the bible and liberation. Journal of Black Theology in South Africa, 2, 34–42.Google Scholar
  64. Moncrieff, T. (1857, October 2). Moncrieff to the Earl of Elgin. British parliamentary papers, China, Vol. 33 (No. 50). Cambridge, MA: Harvard College Library.Google Scholar
  65. Morrison, R. (1825). Chinese miscellany. London: The London Missionary Society.Google Scholar
  66. Morrison, E. (1839). Memoirs of the life and labours of Robert Morrison (Vol. 1). London: Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans.Google Scholar
  67. Morrison, R., & Milne, W. (1838). Chinese terms to express deity. The Chinese Repository, 7(6), 314–321.Google Scholar
  68. Morse, H. B. (1926a). The chronicles of the East India company trading to China, 1635–1834 (Vol. 1). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  69. Morse, H. B. (1926b). The chronicles of the East India company trading to China, 1635–1834 (Vol. 2). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  70. Mose, H. B. (1910). The international relations of the Chinese empire (Vol. 1). Shanghai/Hongkong/Singapore/Yokohama: Kelly and Walsh, Limited.Google Scholar
  71. Nanjing tiaoyue [The Treaty of Nanking], CN -U.K., Agu. 29, 1842, 1 C.C.F.C.F.T. 1046.Google Scholar
  72. Nida, A. E. (1959). Principles of translation as exemplified by bible translating. In R. A. Brower (Ed.), On translation (pp. 11–31). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Niranjana, T. (1992). Sitting translation: History, post-structuralism, and the colonial context. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  74. Peyrefitte, A. (1993). The collision of two civilisations: The British expedition to China in 1792–4. London: Harvill.Google Scholar
  75. Pottinger, H. (1856). Office notice by sir Henry Pottinger. In G. T. Staunton (Ed.), Memoirs of the chief incidents of the public life of sir George Thomas Staunton (pp. 216–217). London: L. Booth.Google Scholar
  76. Qi, S. H., Lin, S. H., & Shou, J. Y. (1954). Yapian zhanzheng (di 5 ce) [The opium war, Vol. 5]. Shanghai: Shenzhou guoguangshe.Google Scholar
  77. Qiao, H. T., & Jin, P. (1992). Guomen pohui zhishi: Nanjing tiaoyue [The beginning of the destruction of the gate of China: The treaty of Nanking]. Beijing: Zhongguo renmin daxue chubanshe.Google Scholar
  78. Rao, Z. Y. (1949). Chaozhouzhi · shiyanzhiliu · shangye [The annals of the city of Chaozhou, industry, Vol. 6: Commence]. Shantou: Chaozhou xiuzhiguan.Google Scholar
  79. Religious Tract Society. (1854). The bible in many tongues. London: Author.Google Scholar
  80. Revision of the Chinese version of the Bible; remarks on the words for God, Father, Son, Spirit, Soul, Prophet, Baptism and Sabbath. (1846, April). The Chinese Repository, 15(4): 161–165.Google Scholar
  81. Rogerson, J. W. (2005). An introduction to the bible. London: Equinox.Google Scholar
  82. Ryrie, C. C. (1986). Basic theology. Wheaton: Victor Books.Google Scholar
  83. Semmel, B. (1970). The rise of free trade imperialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Shen, Y. L. (Ed.). (1966). Jindai zhongguo shiliao congkan zhengbian di 62 ji [A collection of the historical materials in modern China, Vol. 62]. Taibei: Taiwan wenhai chubanshe.Google Scholar
  85. Shen, Y. L. (Ed.). (1983). Jindai zhongguo shiliao congkan xubian di 95 ji [A sequel to the collection of the historical materials in modern China, Vol. 95]. Taibei: Taiwan wenhai chubanshe.Google Scholar
  86. Sitaraman, S. (2009). State participation in international treaty regimes. Farnham: Ashgate Pub. Company.Google Scholar
  87. Staunton, G. (1797). An authentic account of an embassy from the king of Great Britain to the emperor of China (Vol. 1). London: W. Bulmer and.Google Scholar
  88. Sugirtharajah, R. S. (2001). The bible and the third world: Precolonial, colonial, and postcolonial encounters. Cambridge: The Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Swinburne, R. G. (1995). God. In T. Honderich (Ed.), The Oxford companion to philosophy (pp. 314–315). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. The Anglo-Chinese Treaty of Tientsin, CN -U.K., June. 26, 1858, T.C.F.P. 358.Google Scholar
  91. The Bible: Its adaptation to the moral condition of man; With remarks on the qualifications of translators and the style most proper for a version of the Scriptures in Chinese. (1835, November). The Chinese Repository, 4 (7): 297–305.Google Scholar
  92. The Treaty of Nanking, CN -U.K., Agu. 29, 1842, T.C.F.P. 358.Google Scholar
  93. Tianjing tiaoyue [The Anglo-Chinese Treaty of Tientsin], CN-U.K., June. 26, 1858, 1 C.C.F.C.F.T. 1046.Google Scholar
  94. Wen, Q., et al. (Eds.). (1964). Chouban Yiwu shimo (Daoguang chao) [A retrospect of undertaking the Western affairs during the reign of Daoguang emperor]. Beijng: Zhonghua shuju.Google Scholar
  95. Williams, S. W. (1848). The middle kingdom (Vol. 2). New York/London: Wiley and Putnam.Google Scholar
  96. Wong, L. W. C. (Ed.). (2011). Fanyi yu wenxue zhijian [Between translation and literature]. Nanjing: Nanjing daxue chubanshe.Google Scholar
  97. Wu, G. H. (Ed.). (2010). The Chinese-English dictionary (3rd ed.). Shanghai: Yiwen chubanshe.Google Scholar
  98. Xiong, Y. Z. (1994). Xiyue dongjian yu wanqing shehui [The dissemination of Western learning in China and the Chinese society in the late Qing]. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe.Google Scholar
  99. Xu, S. F. (2008). Jindai hanyu da cidian [A Chinese dictionary in modern times]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.Google Scholar
  100. Zhang, G. G. (2003). Cong zhongxi chushi dao Liyizhizheng—Mingqing chuanjiaoshi yu zhongxi wenhua jiaoliu [From the first contact between China and the west to the rites controversy: The Ming-Qing missionaries and the Sino-Western cultural exchanges]. Beijing: Renmin chubanshe.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaojia Huang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Foreign StudiesSouth China Normal UniversityGuangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations