Distillery Effluent: Pollution Profile, Eco-friendly Treatment Strategies, Challenges and Future Prospects

  • Vineet Kumar
  • Deepak Chand SharmaEmail author
Part of the Microorganisms for Sustainability book series (MICRO, volume 10)


In India, distilleries are one of the largest industries, generating vast quantities of effluent (known as raw effluent or spent wash), which is potentially a great cause of aquatic and soil pollution. Distillery effluent (DE) is characterized by its high biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and non-biodegradable inorganic and organic pollutants and highly recalcitrant dark brown colour. It also contains a complex mixture of numerous recalcitrant organic pollutants such as butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid and vanillyl propionic acid and various heavy metals, which are reported as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). DE disposed even after conventional treatment processes (activated sludge and biomethanation) poses a serious threat to the environment. Thus, various physicochemical processes have been reported for its decolourization and detoxification, but these techniques are not practicable on an industrial scale due to expensive high chemical consumption, high water requirement and resulting production of a vast quantity of toxic sludge and other secondary by-products. Hence, biological approaches that use microorganisms present a highly attractive alternative for decolourization and detoxification of distillery effluent. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of DE pollutants, their ecotoxicological hazards as well as various ecofriendly treatment techniques. In addition, different challenges and future prospects of DE treatment processes are discussed towards establishing sustainable development.


Endocrine-disrupting chemicals Activated sludge Vermifiltration Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyDr. Shakuntala Misra National Rehabilitation UniversityLucknowIndia

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