Advertisement

Northern European Rehabilitation Services in the Context of Changing Healthcare, Welfare, and Labour Market Institutions: A Theoretical Framework

  • Ivan HarsløfEmail author
  • Ingrid Poulsen
  • Kristian Larsen
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter provides a rough outline of the background to interdisciplinary studies of medical and vocational rehabilitation services in Northern European welfare states. We emphasize the critical role of such services in the early development of welfare state arrangements, closely tied to efforts to build cohesive nation states, and cater for industrial labour markets. Understanding this historical background is important for recognizing how these services are functioning under the current postnational and postindustrial conditions. In establishing a compromise between capital and labour, such services played an instrumental role in mitigating social conflicts. Workers knew they had access to wide-ranging health and vocational services, including assistance for longer-term retraining—provided as statutory citizenship rights—should they ever need it. Comprehensive rehabilitation services, along with general encompassing national healthcare services, instituted health and return-to-work processes as a state responsibility. In the current postnational and postindustrial context, where rehabilitation services no longer constitute the proud flagship of the welfare state, it seems that the state is abdicating responsibilities. Increasing emphasis on governance networks involving non-state actors, public-private partnerships, hyper-efficient hospital services, and place-then-train reemployment models seems to be leading to the individualization of responsibility for health and employability.

References

  1. Album, D., Johannessen, L. E. F., & Rasmussen, E. B. (2017). Stability and change in disease prestige: A comparative analysis of three surveys spanning a quarter of a century. Social Science & Medicine, 180, 45–51.Google Scholar
  2. Andersson, J. (2013). Between growth and security: Swedish social democracy from a strong society to a third way (Critical labour movement studies). Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Barnes, H. (2000). Working for a living: Employment, benefits and the living standards of disabled people. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bellamy, R., & Palumbo, A. (2010). From government to governance. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  5. Bengtsson, S. (2013). Sådan produceres ligebehandling [This is how equal treatment is produced]. In S. Bengtsson, I. S. Bonfils, & L. Olsen (Eds.), Handicap og ligebehandling i praksis [Disability and equal treatment] (pp. 41–60). Copenhagen: SFI.Google Scholar
  6. Beveridge, W. (1942). Social insurance and allied services. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  7. Bonfiglioli Stagni, S., Tomba, P., Viganò, A., Zati, A., & Benedetti, M. G. (2015). The first world war drives rehabilitation toward the modern concepts of disability and participation. European Journal of Physical Rehabilitation Medicine, 51(3), 331–336.Google Scholar
  8. Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the Judgement of taste. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  10. Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241–258). New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  11. Brijnath, B., Mazza, D., & Singh, N. (2013). A process evaluation of the new certificate of capacity for compensation claims. Report number 1213-082-R2A, Institute for Safety Compensation and Recovery Research.Google Scholar
  12. Collyer, F. (2018). Envisaging the healthcare sector as a field: Moving from Talcott Parsons to Pierre Bourdieu. Social Theory & Health, 16(2), 111–126.Google Scholar
  13. Corrigan, P. W., & McCracken, S. G. (2005). Place first, then train: An alternative to the medical model of psychiatric rehabilitation. Social Work, 50(1), 31–39.Google Scholar
  14. Danish Directorate for Health. (2011). Hjerneskaderehabilitering—en medicinsk teknologivurdering [Brain injury—A medical technology assessment]. Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  15. Dean, H. (2018). EU citizenship and ‘work’: Tensions between formal and substantive equality. In S. Seubert, O. Eberl, & F. van Waarden (Eds.), Reconsidering EU citizenship: Contradictions and constrains (pp. 108–132). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  16. Dobson, B. (2017). Gainful gigging: Employment services for the platform economy. London: Reform.Google Scholar
  17. Drøpping, J. A. (1996). The other side of de-commodification: Postwar Norwegian and British disability policies. Trondheim: NTNU.Google Scholar
  18. Drøpping, J. A., Hvinden, B., & Van Oorschot, W. (2000). Reconstruction and reorientation: Changing disability policies in the Netherlands and Norway. European Journal of Social Security, 2(1), 35–68.Google Scholar
  19. Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  20. Esping-Andersen, G. (1999). Social foundations of postindustrial economies. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Freidson, E. (1988). Profession of medicine: A study of the sociology of applied knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  22. Friedland, R., & Alford, R. R. (1991). Bringing society back in: Symbols, practices, and institutional contradictions. In W. W. Powell & P. J. DiMaggio (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis (pp. 232–266). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  23. Ganssman, H. (2003). Labor force mobilization and the feasibility of comprehensive welfare states. Paper presented at ESPAnet Conference, Copenhagen, 2003.Google Scholar
  24. Gobelet, C., & Franchignoni, F. (2006). Vocational Rehabilitation. Paris: Springer.Google Scholar
  25. Grossman, M. (1972). On the concept of health capital and the demand for health. Journal of Political Economy, 80(2), 223–255.Google Scholar
  26. Guldager, R., Poulsen, I., Egerod, I., Mathiesen, L. L., & Larsen, K. (2018). Rehabilitation capital: A new form of capital to understand rehabilitation in a Nordic welfare state. Health Sociology Review, 27(2), 199–213.Google Scholar
  27. Gustafson, P. (2006). Work-related travel and family obligations. Work, Employment and Society, 20(3), 513–530.Google Scholar
  28. Haave, P. (2006). The hospital sector: A four-country comparison of organisational and political development. In N. F. Christiansen, K. Petersen, N. Edling, & P. Haave (Eds.), The Nordic model of welfare: A historical reappraisal (pp. 215–242). Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.Google Scholar
  29. Hampson, I., & Junor, A. (2010). Putting the process back in: Rethinking service sector skill. Work, Employment and Society, 24(3), 526–545.Google Scholar
  30. Hantrais, L. (2000). Social policy in the European Union (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan Press.Google Scholar
  31. Harsløf, I. (2004, June). Enterprise rehabilitation: Involving enterprises in the vocational rehabilitation efforts in Denmark. Paper presented at the 20th World Congress of Rehabilitation International, Lillestrøm.Google Scholar
  32. Harsløf, I., Scarpa, S., & Andersen, S. N. (2013). Changing population profiles and social risk structures in the Nordic countries. In I. Harsløf & R. Ulmestig (Eds.), Changing social risks and social policy responses in the Nordic welfare states (pp. 25–49). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  33. Harsløf, I., Søbjerg Nielsen, U., & Feiring, M. (2017). Danish and Norwegian hospital social workers’ cross-institutional work amidst inter-sectoral restructuring of health and social welfare. European Journal of Social Work, 20(4), 584–595.Google Scholar
  34. Hendriks, A. (2005). Promoting disability equality after the treaty of Amsterdam: New legal directions and practical expansion strategies. In A. Lawson & C. Gooding (Eds.), Disability rights in Europe from theory to practice: Essays in European law (pp. 187–198). Oxford: Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
  35. Hindhede, A. L., & Larsen, K. (2018). Prestige hierarchies of diseases and specialities in a field perspective. Social Theory & Health, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41285-018-0074-5.Google Scholar
  36. Holland, P., Burström, B., Whitehead, M., Diderichsen, F., Dahl, E., Barr, B., et al. (2011). How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part I: The impact of recession and deindustrialization. International Journal of Health Services, 41(3), 395–413.Google Scholar
  37. Højbjerg, K., & Larsen, K. (2018). At lære at agere i et sundhedsvæsen under forandring [Learning to act in a changing healthcare system]. In S. Hundborg (Ed.), Sundhedsvæsenet under forandring [The changes of the healthcare system] (pp. 9–33). Copenhagen: Munksgaards Forlag.Google Scholar
  38. Håvold, O. K., Harsløf, I., & Andreassen, T. A. (2018). Externalizing an ‘asset model’ of activation: Creative institutional work by frontline workers in the Norwegian labour and welfare service. Social Policy and Administration, 52(1), 178–196.Google Scholar
  39. Jensen, P. H. (1996). Komparative velfærdssystemer: Kvinders reproduktionsstrategier mellem familien, velfærdsstaten og arbejdsmarkedet [Comparative welfare systems]. København: Nyt fra Samfundsvidenskaberne.Google Scholar
  40. Jensen, P. H. (1999). Velfærdsstatens politiske ideologi: En kritik af Esping-Andersen [The political ideology of the welfare state: A critique of Esping-Andersen]. Grus, 20, 84–100.Google Scholar
  41. Jensen, C. (2008). Worlds of welfare services and transfers. Journal of European Social Policy, 18(2), 151–162.Google Scholar
  42. Kessel, P., Rosenfield, L., & Anderson, N. B. (2008). Expanding the boundaries of health and social science: Case studies in interdisciplinary innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Kvist, J. (2015). ESPN thematic report on social investment–Denmark. Brussels: European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion.Google Scholar
  44. Larsen, K., Cutchin, M., & Harsløf, I. (2013). Health capital: New health risks and personal investments in the body in the context of changing Nordic welfare states. In I. Harsløf & R. Ulmestig (Eds.), Changing social risks and social policy responses in the Nordic welfare states (pp. 165–188). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  45. Lawson, A. (2008). Disability and equality law in Britain: The role of reasonable adjustment. Oxford: Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
  46. Le Monde. (1970, May 9). Dans l’histoire de la CECA, du rose et du gris [The history of the ECSC: Good times and bad], p. 6.Google Scholar
  47. Leplège, A., Barral, C., & McPherson, K. (2015). Conceptualizing disability to inform rehabilitation: Historical and epistemological perspectives. In K. McPherson, B. E. Gibson, & A. Leplège (Eds.), Rethinking rehabilitation: Theory and practice. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  48. Lindqvist, R. (1990). Från folkrörelse till välfärdsbyråkrati: Det svenska sjukförsikringssystemets utveckling 1900–1990 [The popular movement to welfare bureaucracy]. Lund: Arkiv.Google Scholar
  49. Lindqvist, R. (2000). Att sätta gränser: Organisationer och reformer i arbetsrehabilitering [Organizations and reforms in vocational rehabilitation]. Umeå: Boréa.Google Scholar
  50. Loomis, E. (2015). Out of sight: The long and disturbing story of corporations outsourcing catastrophe. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  51. Mabbett, D. (2005). The development of rights-based social policy in the European Union: The example of disability rights. Journal of Common Market Studies, 43(1), 97–120.Google Scholar
  52. Ministry of Employment. (2012). Lov om ændring af lov om en aktiv beskæftigelsesindsats, lov om aktiv socialpolitik, lov om social pension og forskellige andre love (L 53) [Amendments to the Law on active employment].Google Scholar
  53. Ministry of Labour. (1992). Attføring og arbeid for yrkeshemmede. Sykepenger og uførepensjon, St.meld. nr. 39 1991–1992 [Vocational rehabilitation and work for people with disabilities]. Oslo.Google Scholar
  54. Ngai, P., & Chan, J. (2012). Global Capital, the State, and Chinese Workers: The Foxconn Experience. Modern China, 38(4), 383–410.Google Scholar
  55. Nudo, R. J. (2013). Recovery after brain injury: Mechanisms and principles. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 887.Google Scholar
  56. OECD. (2008). Sickness, disability and work: Breaking the barriers. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  57. OECD. (2017). Employment outlook. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  58. Pinell, P. (2011). The genesis of the medical field: France, 1795–1870. Revue Française de Sociologie, 52(5), 117–151.Google Scholar
  59. Pollitt, C., & Bouckaert, G. (2017). Public management reform: A comparative analysis into the age of austerity (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Rose, N. (2006). The politics of life itself: Biomedicine, power, and subjectivity in the twenty-first century. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Scharle, Á., & Váradi, B. (2013). Identifying barriers to institutional change in disability services. WWW for Europe Working Paper 41.Google Scholar
  62. Schian, H. M. (2006). Vocational rehabilitation and participation in working life: The German model. In C. Gobelet & F. Franchignoni (Eds.), Vocational rehabilitation (pp. 309–328). Paris: Springer.Google Scholar
  63. Schmid, H. (1995). Velfærdsstatens solidaritetsformer [Forms of solidarity of the welfare state]. Dansk Sociologi, 6(3), 38.Google Scholar
  64. Thornton, P. H., & Ocasio, W. (2008). Institutional logics. The SAGE handbook of organizational institutionalism. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  65. Twaddle, A. C. (1979). Sickness behavior and the sick role. Boston: Hall.Google Scholar
  66. Vallgårda, S. (1999). The rise, heyday, and incipient decline of specialization: Hospitals in Denmark, 1930–1990. International Journal of Health Services, 29(2), 431–457.Google Scholar
  67. Waddington, L. (1996). Reassessing the employment of people with disabilities in Europe: From quotas to anti-discrimination laws. Comparative Labor Law Journal, 18(1), 62–101.Google Scholar
  68. Waddington, L. (2001). Evolving disability policies: From social-welfare to human rights: An international trend from a European perspective. Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, 19(2), 141–165.Google Scholar
  69. Whiteside, N. (2014). The Beveridge report and its implementation: A revolutionary project? Histoire@Politique, 24(3), 24–37.Google Scholar
  70. WHO. (2011). World report on disability. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  71. Wigzell, O. (2017). People-centred healthcare: What empowering policies are needed. OECD Observer, 309(Q1), 23.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivan Harsløf
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ingrid Poulsen
    • 2
  • Kristian Larsen
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Social Work, Child Welfare and Social PolicyOslo Metropolitan UniversityOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of Neurorehabilitation, RigshospitaletUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Learning and PhilosophyAalborg University CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations