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Bacterial Chitinase System as a Model of Chitin Biodegradation

  • Takafumi ItohEmail author
  • Hisashi Kimoto
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1142)

Abstract

Chitin, a structural polysaccharide of β-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, is the second most abundant natural biopolymer after cellulose. The metabolism of chitin affects the global carbon and nitrogen cycles, which are maintained by marine and soil-dwelling bacteria. The degradation products of chitin metabolism serve as important nutrient sources for the chitinolytic bacteria. Chitinolytic bacteria have elaborate enzymatic systems for the degradation of the recalcitrant chitin biopolymer. This chapter introduces chitin degradation and utilization systems of the chitinolytic bacteria. These bacteria secrete many chitin-degrading enzymes, including processive chitinases, endo-acting non-processive chitinases, lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases, and N-acetyl-hexosaminidases. Bacterial chitinases play a fundamental role in the degradation of chitin. Enzymatic properties, catalytic mechanisms, and three-dimensional structures of chitinases have been extensively studied by many scientists. These enzymes can be exploited to produce a range of chitin-derived products, e.g., biocontrol agents against many plant pathogenic fungi and insects. We introduce bacterial chitinases in terms of their reaction modes and structural features.

Keywords

Bacterial chitinase Bacterial chitinolysis Endo-acting non-processive chitinase Processive chitinase 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Bioscience and BiotechnologyFukui Prefectural UniversityEiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, FukuiJapan

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