Lactic Acid Bacteria and Fermented Cereals

  • Bowen Yan
  • Hao ZhangEmail author


It is well-known that cereals are one of the traditional staple foods in many Asian countries. In China, the records of five cereals are reported as early as the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period in the “Analects of Confucius,” including rice, wheat, soybeans, corn, and potatoes. Starch is one of the most important components in cereal; the content accounts for 60% of the total cereals weight and 90% of the total carbohydrate content. In addition, cereals also contain a variety of proteins, lipids, cellulose, minerals, and enzymes, which not only meet the nutritional and metabolic needs of microorganisms but also provide a good substrate for microbial growth (Cho et al. 2013; Waters et al. 2015). Fermentation technology has been known and mastered for thousands of years. As one of the traditional staple foods in northern China (Zhu 2014), steamed bun originated in the Three Kingdoms Period; soy sauce, as an ancient condiment, has a long history of more than 1800 years; fermented bean curd also had historical records in the ancient books of the Wei Dynasty as early as the fifth century AD. However, due to the lack of understanding in fermentation and microorganism at that time, the development of fermented food was limited. With the development of science and technology, we have come to realize that cereal is the natural medium for microbial growth and reproduction. Microorganisms utilize the carbohydrates and amino acids of cereal for fermentation (Oguntoyinbo and Narbad 2015), under a series of physiological and biochemical reactions, which improves the quality, flavor, and nutrition of products. Furthermore, the fermented cereal food also has the effects of regulating human intestinal health, alleviating constipation, and absorbing heavy metals in the body (Akanbi and Agarry 2014; Brandt 2014; Zhao et al. 2015).


  1. Akanbi B, Agarry O (2014) Hypocholesterolemic and growth promoting effects of Lactobacillus plantarum AK isolated from a Nigerian fermented cereal product on rats fed high fat diet. Adv Microbiol 4(3):160–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balestra F, Gianotti A, Saa DT et al (2014) Durum wheat and Kamut® bread characteristics: influence of chemical acidification. 7th International Congress Flour-Bread’13 and 9th Croatian Congress of Cereal TechnologistsGoogle Scholar
  3. Brandt MJ (2014) Starter cultures for cereal based foods. Food Microbiol 37:41–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brandt MJ, Hammes WP, Gänzle MG et al (2004) Effects of process parameters on growth and metabolism of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Candida humilis during rye sourdough fermentation. Eur Food Res Technol 218(4):333–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cao Y, Lu J, Fang H et al (2008) Fungal diversity of wheat Qu of shaoxing rice wine. Food Sci 29(3):277–282Google Scholar
  6. Chen S, Xu Y (2013) Effect of ‘wheat Qu’on the fermentation processes and volatile flavour-active compounds of Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu). J Inst Brew 119(1-2):71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen T, Wang M, Jiang S et al (2011) Investigation of the microbial changes during koji-making process of Douchi by culture-dependent techniques and PCR-DGGE. Int J Food Sci Technol 46(9):1878–1883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen HX, Zhao LQ, Yun TT et al (2014a) Study on manufacturing process and nutritional value of brown rice beverage by probiotic fermentation. Food and Fermentation Industries 11:269–275Google Scholar
  9. Chen L, Xu S, Pan Y et al (2014b) Diversity of lactic acid bacteria in Chinese traditional fermented foods. In: Beneficial microbes in fermented and functional foods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 1Google Scholar
  10. Cheng ZY, Mo SP, Bai JL et al (2012) A survey of research progress and production of cereal beverages in China. Beverage Ind 15(6):6–10Google Scholar
  11. Cho SS, Qi L, Fahey GC et al (2013) Consumption of cereal fiber, mixtures of whole cereals and bran, and whole cereals and risk reduction in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 98(2):594–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clarke CI, Schober TJ, Dockery P et al (2004) Wheat sourdough fermentation: effects of time and acidification on fundamental rheological properties. Cereal Chem 81(3):409–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Corsetti A (2013) Technology of sourdough fermentation and sourdough applications. In: Handbook on sourdough biotechnology. Springer, New York, pp 85–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Corsetti A, Gobbetti M, De Marco B et al (2000) Combined effect of sourdough lactic acid bacteria and additives on bread firmness and staling. J Agric Food Chem 48(7):3044–3051PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cui RY, Zheng J, Wu CD et al (2014) Effect of different halophilic microbial fermentation patterns on the volatile compound profiles and sensory properties of soy sauce moromi. Eur Food Res Technol 239(2):321–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deng YJ, Liu S, Liu K et al (2015) Exploration of improving the utilization and flavor of low-salt solid-state soy sauce. China Condiment (11):57–58, 63Google Scholar
  17. Di Cagno R, Pontonio E, Buchin S et al (2014) Diversity of the lactic acid bacteria and yeast microbiota switching from firm- to liquid- sourdough fermentation. Appl Environ Microbiol AEM 80(10):3161–3172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Di Monaco R, Torrieri E, Pepe O et al (2015) Effect of sourdough with exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on sensory quality of bread during shelf life. Food Bioprocess Technol 8(3):691–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ercolini D, Pontonio E, De Filippis F et al (2013) Microbial ecology dynamics during rye and wheat sourdough preparation. Appl Environ Microbiol 79(24):7827–7836PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fang H (2006) Primary study of microorganism on wheat Qu of Shaoxing rice wine. Master dissertation, Jiangnan University, WuxiGoogle Scholar
  21. Fang RS, Dong YC, Chen F et al (2015) Bacterial diversity analysis during the fermentation processing of traditional Chinese yellow rice wine revealed by 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing. J Food Sci 80(10):M2265–M2271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Feng Y, Su G, Zhao H et al (2015) Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial soy sauce by odour activity value and omission test. Food Chem 167:220–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Galle S, Arendt EK (2014) Exopolysaccharides from sourdough lactic acid bacteria. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 54(7):891–901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gänzle MG (2014) Enzymatic and bacterial conversions during sourdough fermentation. Food Microbiol 37:2–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gao XL, Cui C, Zhao HF et al (2010) Changes in volatile aroma compounds of traditional Chinese-type soy sauce during moromi fermentation and heat treatment. Food Sci Biotechnol 19(4):889–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gobbetti M, Gänzle M (2012) Handbook on sourdough biotechnology. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Gobbetti M, De Angelis M, Arnaut P et al (1999) Added pentosans in breadmaking: fermentations of derived pentoses by sourdough lactic acid bacteria. Food Microbiol 16(4):409–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gobbetti M, Rizzello CG, Di Cagno R et al (2014) How the sourdough may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods. Food Microbiol 37:30–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Han QH (2013) Study on the relationship between microbial community and vinegar flavor in the traditional brewing process of Liangzhou Fumigated Vinegar. Master dissertation, Gansu Agricultural University, Gansu
  30. Han CJ, Liu CH, Zhou X (2010) Judgement indicators and measures of Jiaozi quality. Sci Technol Food Ind (5):107–113Google Scholar
  31. Hansen A, Schieberle P (2005) Generation of aroma compounds during sourdough fermentation: applied and fundamental aspects. Trends Food Sci Technol 16(1):85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haruta S, Ueno S, Egawa I et al (2006) Succession of bacterial and fungal communities during a traditional pot fermentation of rice vinegar assessed by PCR-mediated denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Int J Food Microbiol 109(1):79–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hu LH (2010) Screening of microorganisms from traditional starter cultures and their effects on the quality of Mantou. Master dissertation, Henan University of Technology, ZhengzhouGoogle Scholar
  34. Iacumin L, Cecchini F, Manzano M et al (2009) Description of the microflora of sourdoughs by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Food Microbiol 26(2):128–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jänsch A, Korakli M, Vogel RF et al (2007) Glutathione reductase from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451T: contribution to oxygen tolerance and thiol exchange reactions in wheat sourdoughs. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(14):4469–4476PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jia JB (2002) Development of oat probiotics milk of lactobacillus rhamnosus. Sci Technol Food Ind 23(10):40–42Google Scholar
  37. Katina K, Poutanen K (2013) Nutritional aspects of cereal fermentation with lactic acid bacteria and yeast. In: Handbook on sourdough biotechnology. Springer, New York, pp 229–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Katina K, Salmenkallio-Marttila M, Partanen R et al (2006) Effects of sourdough and enzymes on staling of high-fibre wheat bread. LWT-Food Sci Technol 39(5):479–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lee S, Seo B, Kim YS (2006) Volatile compounds in fermented and acid-hydrolyzed soy sauces. J Food Sci 71(3):C146–C156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Li DY (2008) The variation of the flavors and functional factors during the production of Zhenjiang Vinegar, Master dissertation, Jiangnan University, WuxiGoogle Scholar
  41. Li WY (2013) Analysis on current situation and development trends of soy sauce industry. Jiangsu Condiment Subsidiary Food (1):1–3Google Scholar
  42. Li LT, Lu ZH, Min WH (2001) Influence of natural fermentation on the physicochemical characteristics of rice and gelation mechanism of rice noodle. Food Ferment Ind 27(12):1–6Google Scholar
  43. Li S, Li P, Feng F et al (2015) Microbial diversity and their roles in the vinegar fermentation process. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99(12):4997–5024PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Liao YT, Wu J, Long M et al (2015) Screening of dominant lactic acid bacteria from naturally fermented yak milk in Tibetan pastoral areas and optimization of fermentation conditions for yak yogurt production. Food Sci (11):140–144Google Scholar
  45. Liu TJ, Li Y, Wu SR et al (2014) Isolation and identification of bacteria and yeast from Chinese traditional sourdough. Mod Food Sci Technol 30(9):114–120Google Scholar
  46. Liu Y, Hu MF, Liu SC (2015) Effect on volatile flavor compounds in broad bean sauce fermented in four different ways. Mod Food Sci Technol 31(3):190–196Google Scholar
  47. Loponen J, Sontag-Strohm T, Venäläinen T et al (2007) Prolamin hydrolysis in wheat sourdoughs with differing proteolytic activities. J Agric Food Chem 55(3):978–984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lu ZY, Wei KQ (2006) Discuss on the high salt liquid state fermentation of the soy sauce. China Condiment (1):28–31Google Scholar
  49. Lu ZH, Peng HH, Li LT (2006) Isolating and identifying microbes in fermented rice noodles of Changde. J Chin Cereal Oils Assoc 21(3):23–26Google Scholar
  50. Lv XC, Huang XL, Zhang W et al (2013) Yeast diversity of traditional alcohol fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine brewing, revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Food Control 34(1):183–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lv XC, Jia RB, Li Y et al (2016) Characterization of the dominant bacterial communities of traditional fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine by means of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry fingerprinting, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCRs. Food Control 67:292–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ma X, Zhang MM, He Y et al (2015) Research development of effect of fermentation on the quality of fresh rice noodle. China Brew 34(4):5–7Google Scholar
  53. Marti A, Torri L, Casiraghi MC et al (2014) Wheat germ stabilization by heat-treatment or sourdough fermentation: effects on dough rheology and bread properties. LWT-Food Sci Technol 59(2):1100–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McKay L, Baldwin K (1974) Simultaneous loss of proteinase-and lactose-utilizing enzyme activities in Streptococcus lactis and reversal of loss by transduction. Appl Microbiol 28(3):342–346PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Meng XY (2007) Study on retrogradation mechanism and influencing factors of starch retrogradation. Food Eng (2):60–63Google Scholar
  56. Miao ZW, Liu YP, Chen HT et al (2010) Analysis of volatile components in Shanxi overmature vinegar with different staling periods. Food Sci (24):380–384Google Scholar
  57. Miao ZW, Liu YP, Huang MQ et al (2013) The change of volatile aroma components of Douzhi in the heating process. J Chin Inst Food Sci Technol (2):199–204Google Scholar
  58. Min WH, Li LT, Wang CH (2004) Effects of lactic acid bacteria fermentation of rice starch on physical properties. Food Sci 25(10):73–76Google Scholar
  59. Minervini F, De Angelis M, Di Cagno R et al (2014) Ecological parameters influencing microbial diversity and stability of traditional sourdough. Int J Food Microbiol 171:136–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Minervini F, Lattanzi A, De Angelis M et al (2015) House microbiotas as sources of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in traditional Italian sourdoughs. Food Microbiol 52:66–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nanson NJ, Fields ML (1984) Influence of temperature of fermentation on the nutritive value of lactic acid fermented cornmeal. J Food Sci 49(3):958–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Oguntoyinbo FA, Narbad A (2015) Multifunctional properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from fermented cereal foods. J Funct Foods 17:621–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Onyango C, Henle T, Ziems A et al (2004a) Effect of extrusion variables on fermented maize–finger millet blend in the production of uji. LWT-Food Sci Technol 37(4):409–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Onyango C, Noetzold H, Bley T et al (2004b) Proximate composition and digestibility of fermented and extruded uji from maize–finger millet blend. LWT-Food Sci Technol 37(8):827–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pétel C, Onno B, Prost C (2016) Sourdough volatile compounds and their contribution to bread: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 59:105–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Plessas S, Mantzourani I, Bekatorou A et al (2015) New biotechnological approaches in sourdough bread production regarding starter culture applications. Advances in Food Biotechnology, Hoboken, pp 277–285Google Scholar
  67. Qiu C, Sun W, Zhao Q et al (2013) Emulsifying and surface properties of citric acid deamidated wheat gliadin. J Cereal Sci 58(1):68–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rizzello CG, Coda R, Mazzacane F et al (2012) Micronized by-products from debranned durum wheat and sourdough fermentation enhanced the nutritional, textural and sensory features of bread. Food Res Int 46(1):304–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Robertson GH, Cao TK, Gregorski KS et al (2014) Modification of vital wheat gluten with phosphoric acid to produce high free swelling capacity. J Appl Polym Sci 131(2):39440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sarfaraz A, Azizi M, Esfahani H et al (2014) Evaluation of some variables affecting the acidification characteristics of liquid sourdough. J Food Sci Technol 12(46):65–74Google Scholar
  71. Sarfaraz A, Azizi M, Hamidi EZ et al (2015) Evaluation of some variables affecting the acidification characteristics of liquid sourdough. Iran J Food Sci Technol 13(60):115–124Google Scholar
  72. Scheirlinck I, van der Meulen R, van SA et al (2007) Influence of geographical origin and flour type on diversity of lactic acid bacteria in traditional Belgian sourdoughs. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(19):6262–6269PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Singracha P, Niamsiri N, Visessanguan W et al (2016) Application of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts as starter cultures for reduced-salt soy sauce (moromi) fermentation. LWT-Food Sci Technol 78:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Solieri L, Giudici P (2008) Yeasts associated to traditional balsamic vinegar: ecological and technological features. Int J Food Microbiol 125(1):36–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Su DM (2005) Studies on classification and quality evaluation of staple Chinese steamed bread. PhD dissertation, China Agriculture University, Beijing
  76. Su DM (2009) Probe into the origin of the steamed bun and its historical development. J Henan Univ Technol (Soc Sci Ed) 5(2):14–18Google Scholar
  77. Su YH (2015) Microorganisms and flavor formation in vinegar production with solid-state fermentation. China Brew 34(3):137–140Google Scholar
  78. Sui CG, Chu YY (2013) Study on the production technology of Gwas. Packag Food Mach 31(3):60–62Google Scholar
  79. Thiele C, Gänzle M, Vogel R (2002) Contribution of sourdough lactobacilli, yeast, and cereal enzymes to the generation of amino acids in dough relevant for bread flavor. Cereal Chem 79(1):45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tieking M, Korakli M, Ehrmann MA et al (2003) In situ production of exopolysaccharides during sourdough fermentation by cereal and intestinal isolates of lactic acid bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 69(2):945–952PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tong LT, Zhou SM, Lin LZ et al (2013) Changes of main microflora in Changde fresh wet rice noodles. Mod Food Sci Technol 29(11):2616–2620Google Scholar
  82. Üçok G, Hayta M (2015) Effect of sourdough addition on rice based gluten-free formulation: rheological properties of dough and bread quality. Qual Assur Saf Crops Foods 7(5):643–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vogelmann SA, Seitter M, Singer U et al (2009) Adaptability of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava and use of competitive strains as starters. Int J Food Microbiol 130(3):205–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wang FL, Liu AG (2003) Study on the fermentation of Mimi. Sci Technol Food Ind 24(5):47–49Google Scholar
  85. Wang WG, Cao W, Zhu XS (2013) Determination of organic acids in vinegar and difference analysis. Sichuan Food Ferment 49(2):81–84Google Scholar
  86. Waters DM, Mauch A, Coffey A et al (2015) Lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for the delivery of functional biomolecules and ingredients in cereal-based beverages: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 55(4):503–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wolter A, Hager AS, Zannini E et al (2014) Evaluation of exopolysaccharide producing Weissella cibaria MG1 strain for the production of sourdough from various flours. Food Microbiol 37:44–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wu SRGL (2011) Identification and biodiversity of yeast and LAB isolated from sourdoughs collected from western region of inner Mongolia. Master dissertation, Agricultural University of the Inner Mongol, Hohehot
  89. Wu JJ, Ma YK, Zhang FF et al (2012) Biodiversity of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in the fermentation of “Shanxi aged vinegar”, a traditional Chinese vinegar. Food Microbiol 30(1):289–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Xu W, Zhang XJ, Xu HY et al (2007) Analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic solid-fermentation culture of Zhenjiang Hengshun vinegar. Microbiology 34(4):646–649Google Scholar
  91. Yan HY, Zhan P, Liu YD et al (2008) Study on production technologies of the corn fermented beverage. Cereal Oils Process 6:117–119Google Scholar
  92. Yang JY, Liu CH (2007) Industrialization of Chinese traditional Jiaozi. Food Res Dev 28(2):164–166Google Scholar
  93. Yang JY, Liu CH, Niu L et al (2006) Research on the change of physical and chemical index of traditional Jiaozi during the making procedure. Cereal Oils Process (10):70–72Google Scholar
  94. Yang Y, Deng Y, Jin Y et al (2016) Dynamics of microbial community during the extremely long-term fermentation process of a traditional soy sauce. J Sci Food Agric 97(10):3220–3227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yin Y, Wang J, Yang S et al (2015) Protein degradation in wheat sourdough fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum M616. Interdiscip Sci Comput Life Sci 7(2):205–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zhang Z, Wang QY (2013) Study on current situation of cereal-based beverages: a review. Beverage Ind 16(8):45–50Google Scholar
  97. Zhang J, Liu W, Sun Z et al (2011a) Diversity of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in traditional sourdoughs collected from western region in Inner Mongolia of China. Food Control 22(5):767–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zhang ZL, Xiong L, Zhao YL et al (2011b) Study on effect of amylose content and pasting properties on rice noodles gels texture. J Qingdao Agric Univ 28(1):60–64Google Scholar
  99. Zhao DA (2005) Mixed ferment and pure-blood ferment. China Condiment 3:3–8Google Scholar
  100. Zhao DA (2009) Evolution and development of soy sauce production technology in China. China Brew 28(9):15–17Google Scholar
  101. Zhao GZ, Sun FY, Yao YP et al (2014) Screening of lactic acid bacteria in the fermentation of mature vinegar and its effects on flavors. Sci Technol Food Ind 35(24):159–163Google Scholar
  102. Zhao CJ, Kinner M, Wismer W et al (2015) Effect of glutamate accumulation during sourdough fermentation with lactobacillus reuteri on the taste of bread and sodium-reduced bread. Cereal Chem 92(2):224–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zhu F (2014) Influence of ingredients and chemical components on the quality of Chinese steamed bread. Food Chem 163:154–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zhu H, Zhu J, Wang L et al (2016) Development of a SPME-GC-MS method for the determination of volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar and its analytical characterization by aroma wheel. J Food Sci Technol 53(1):171–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zou X, Chen Z, Shi J et al (2011) Near infrared modeling of total acid content in vinegars based on LS-SVM. China Brew 3:63–65Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and Science Press 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jiangnan UniversityWuxiChina

Personalised recommendations