Advertisement

Small Farmers and Sustainable N and P Management: Implications and Potential Under Changing Climate

  • Mehmood Ali NoorEmail author
  • Muhammad Mohsin Nawaz
  • Mahmood ul Hassan
  • Alam Sher
  • Tariq Shah
  • Muhammad Mohsin Abrar
  • Umair Ashraf
  • Sajid Fiaz
  • Mohammed A. Basahi
  • Waqas Ahmed
  • Wei MaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The use of inorganic fertilizers has been an efficient way to increase agricultural production. Ever-increasing global population threatening food security, risks of changing climate affecting plant productivity, and the need for environment-friendly agriculture are all requiring the rational use of fertilizers to improve their use efficiencies. The increase in agricultural production in the recent past and in the future is associated with intensified (many folds) use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers, whose irrational use threatens the neighboring micro- and macro-environments by polluting them (e.g., eutrophication) and thus affecting the functioning of nearby animal and plant ecosystems. Therefore, this chapter critically focuses on these challenges faced by the small farmers with persistence farming in managing the precise use of nitrogenous and phosphorus (P) fertilizers. A highlight is given on the socioeconomic features of this persistence farming, which are the key drivers for decision-making in all the agricultural activities of this type of farming. In addition, the interaction of fertilizer management and crop production is provided with respect to small farms, and the review on management strategies for rational use of fertilizers proposed by esteemed international organizations and agencies is described and analyzed with respect to scientific achievements. Best management practices for N and P fertilizers and their significance in agricultural production and plant functioning are proposed also. In last, the management of these two agriculturally important nutrients (N and P) is concluded for sustainable productivity on small farms, and the major players involved in this regard are highlighted.

Keywords

Sustainable productivity Small farmers Subsistence farming Nitrogen Phosphorus Best management practices 

Abbreviations

AN

Ammonium nitrate

BMPs

Best management practices

CAN

Calcium ammonium nitrate

ENSET

Efficient Nutrient Supply in East Africa

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

H2S

Hydrogen sulfide

HHV

High heat value

HLPE

High-Level Panel of Experts of the Committee on Food Security

IFA

International Fertilizer Association

IFAD

International Fund for Agricultural Development

MOB

Methane-oxidizing bacteria

NH4+

Ammonium N

NMP

Nutrient management plan

NO3

Nitrate N

NUE

Nitrogen use efficiency

PGPRs

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

SPAD

Soil plant analysis development

UAN

Urea ammonium nitrate

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

UNIDO

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

WT

Wild type

References

  1. Abele S, Frohberg K (2003) Subsistence agriculture in Central and Eastern Europe: how to break the vicious circle? Studies on the agricultural and food sector in Central and Eastern Europe, vol 22. IOMA, HalleGoogle Scholar
  2. Adamopoulos T, Restuccia D (2014) The size distribution of farms and international productivity differences. Am Econ Rev 104:1667–1697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adesemoye AO, Torbert HA, Kloepper JW (2009) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria allow reduced application rates of chemical fertilizers. Microb Ecol 58:921–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander M (1977) Introduction to soil microbiology-2, vol 2. Krieger Publishing Company, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  5. Atılgan A, Coşkan A, Saltuk B, Erkan M (2007) Antalya yöresindeki seralarda kimyasal ve organik gübre kullanım düzeyleri ve olası çevre etkileri. Ekoloji 15:37–47Google Scholar
  6. Bandaogo A, Bidjokazo F, Youl S, Safo E, Abaidoo R, Andrews O (2014) Effect of fertilizer deep placement with urea supergranule on nitrogen use efficiency of irrigated rice in Sourou Valley (Burkina Faso). Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 102:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrett CB, Bellemare MF, Hou JY (2010) Reconsidering conventional explanations of the inverse productivity–size relationship. World Dev 38:88–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bolger TP, Angus JF, Peoples MB (2003) Comparison of nitrogen mineralisation patterns from root residues of Trifolium subterraneum and Medicago sativa. Biol Fertil Soils 38:296–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bosc P-M, Berdegué JA, Goïta M, JDvd P, Sekine K, Zhang L (2013) Investing in smallholder agriculture for food security: a report by the high level panel of experts on food security and nutrition. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  10. Brussaard L, de Ruiter PC, Brown GG (2007) Soil biodiversity for agricultural sustainability Agriculture. Ecotoxicol Environ 121:233–244Google Scholar
  11. Carr P (2017) Guest editorial: conservation tillage for organic farming. Agriculture 7:19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chaparro JM, Sheflin AM, Manter DK, Vivanco JM (2012) Manipulating the soil microbiome to increase soil health and plant fertility. Biol Fertil Soils 48:489–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cornia GA (1985) Farm size, land yields and the agricultural production function: an analysis for fifteen developing countries. World Dev 13:513–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coyle C, Creamer RE, Schulte RPO, O’Sullivan L, Jordan P (2016) A functional land management conceptual framework under soil drainage and land use scenarios. Environ Sci Pol 56:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crowder DW, Northfield TD, Strand MR, Snyder WE (2010) Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control. Nature 466:109–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crowther TW et al (2016) Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming. Nature 540:104–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Datta R, Anand S, Moulick A, Baraniya D, Pathan SI, Rejsek K, Vranova V, Sharma M, Sharma D, Kelkar A (2017a) How enzymes are adsorbed on soil solid phase and factors limiting its activity: a review. Int Agrophys 31(2):287–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Datta R, Kelkar A, Baraniya D, Molaei A, Moulick A, Meena R, Formanek P (2017b) Enzymatic degradation of lignin in soil: a review. Sustainability 9(7):1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Datta R, Baraniya D, Wang Y-F, Kelkar A, Meena RS, Yadav GS, Teresa Ceccherini M, Formanek P (2017c) Amino acid: its dual role as nutrient and scavenger of free radicals in soil. Sustainability 9(8):1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deininger K, Byerlee D (2011) Rising global interest in farmland. The World Bank, Washington, DC.  https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-8591-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De-la-Peña C et al (2010) Root secretion of defense-related proteins is development-dependent and correlated with flowering time. J Biol Chem 285:30654–30665.  https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m110.119040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Delgado J, Follett R (2010) Advances in nitrogen management for water quality. Soil and Water Conservation Society, AnkenyGoogle Scholar
  23. Delgado J, Alva A, Fares A, Paramasivam S, Mattos D Jr, Sajwan K (2006) Numerical modeling to study the fate of nitrogen in cropping systems and best management case studies. J Crop Improv 15:421–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Delgado J, Shaffer M, Lal H, McKinney S, Gross C, Cover H (2008) Assessment of nitrogen losses to the environment with a Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT). Comput Electron Agric 63:193–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dupont FM, Altenbach SB (2003) Molecular and biochemical impacts of environmental factors on wheat grain development and protein synthesis. J Cereal Sci 38:133–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eastwood R, Lipton M, Newell A (2010) Chapter 65: Farm size. In: Handbook of agricultural economics. Elsevier, Amsterdam.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s1574-0072(09)04065-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ellis F (2005) Small farms, livelihood diversification, and rural-urban transitions: strategic issues in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: The future of small farms. IFPRI, Overseas Dev. Ins. and Imperial College, Kent, p 135Google Scholar
  28. Fairhust T (1999) The importance, distribution and causes of phosphorus deficiency as a constraint to crop production in the tropics. In: Agroforestry forum, pp 2–8Google Scholar
  29. FAO (2012) The state of food and agriculture 2012: investing in agriculture for a better future. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  30. FAO (2013) 2000 world census of agriculture methodological review (1996–2005). Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  31. FAO (2014a) Putting family farmers first to eradicate hunger. Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  32. FAO (2014b) The State of Food and Agriculture 2014: innovation in family farming. Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  33. Fließbach A, Winkler M, Lutz MP, Oberholzer H-R, Mäder P (2009) Soil amendment with Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0: lasting effects on soil biological properties in soils low in microbial biomass and activity. Microb Ecol 57:611–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Flores H (1999) ‘Radicle’ biochemistry: the biology of root-specific metabolism. Trends Plant Sci 4:220–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Follett R, Delgado J (2002) Nitrogen fate and transport in agricultural systems. J Soil Water Conserv 57:402–408Google Scholar
  36. Follett RF, Keeney DR, Cruse RM, Meisinger JJ, Randall GW (1991) Estimating nitrogen budgets for soil-crop systems. Soil Science Society of America, MadisonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Freitas IF, Novais RF, Villani EMA, Novais SV (2013) Phosphorus extracted by ion exchange resins and mehlich-1 from oxisols (latosols) treated with different phosphorus rates and sources for varied soil-source contact periods. Rev Bras Ciênc Solo 37:667–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Giller KE, Beare MH, Lavelle P, Izac AMN, Swift MJ (1997) Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and agroecosystem function. Appl Soil Ecol 6:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gojon A (2017) Nitrogen nutrition in plants: rapid progress and new challenges. J Exp Bot 68:2457–2462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guiñazú LB, Andrés JA, Del Papa MF, Pistorio M, Rosas SB (2009) Response of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to single and mixed inoculation with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Biol Fertil Soils 46:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Haines-Young R, Potschin-Young M (2018) Revision of the common international classification for ecosystem services (CICES V5.1): a policy brief. One Ecosystem 3:e27108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harris JA et al (2011) Does soil biology hold the key to optimized slurry management? A manifesto for research. Soil Use Manag 27:464–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hazell P, Poulton C, Wiggins S, Dorward A (2010) The future of small farms: trajectories and policy priorities. World Dev 38:1349–1361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heidari M, Karami V (2014) Effects of different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower under water stress. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 13:9–13Google Scholar
  45. Heltberg R (1998) Rural market imperfections and the farm size— productivity relationship: evidence from Pakistan. World Dev 26:1807–1826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hirel B, Le Gouis J, Ney B, Gallais A (2007) The challenge of improving nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants: towards a more central role for genetic variability and quantitative genetics within integrated approaches. J Exp Bot 58:2369–2387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hochmuth G, Mylavarapu R, Hanlon E (2014) The four Rs of fertilizer management University of Florida, Electronic Data Information SourceGoogle Scholar
  48. Hodge A, Robinson D, Fitter A (2000) Are microorganisms more effective than plants at competing for nitrogen? Trends Plant Sci 5:304–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Holzhaider JC, Sibley MD, Taylor AH, Singh PJ, Gray RD, Hunt GR (2011) The social structure of New Caledonian crows. Anim Behav 81:83–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.09.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. IFAD U (2013) Smallholders, food security and the environment. International Fund for Agricultural Development, RomeGoogle Scholar
  51. International F (2013) Powering up smallholder farmers to make food fair: a five point agendaGoogle Scholar
  52. Jayne TS, Chamberlin J, Headey DD (2014) Land pressures, the evolution of farming systems, and development strategies in Africa: a synthesis. Food Policy 48:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Johnston AM, Bruulsema TW (2014) 4R nutrient stewardship for improved nutrient use efficiency. Procedia Eng 83:365–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jones DL, Dennis PG, Owen AG, van Hees PAW (2003) Organic acid behavior in soils misconceptions and knowledge gaps. Plant Soil 248:31–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Keesstra SD et al (2016) The significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Soil 2:111–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Khabarov N, Obersteiner M (2017) Global phosphorus fertilizer market and national policies: a case study revisiting the 2008 price peak. Front Nutr 4:22.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2017.00022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Khalil S, Loynachan TE, Tabatabai MA (1994) Mycorrhizal dependency and nutrient uptake by improved and unimproved corn and soybean cultivars. Agron J 86:949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kirankumar R, Jagadeesh K, Krishnaraj P, Patil M (2010) Enhanced growth promotion of tomato and nutrient uptake by plant growth promoting rhizobacterial isolates in presence of tobacco mosaic virus pathogen. Karnataka J Agric Sci 21:309–311Google Scholar
  59. Kogbe JOS, Adediran JA (2003) Influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium application on the yield of maize in the savanna zone of Nigeria. Afr J Biotechnol 2:345–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Koukoulakis P, Papadopoulos A (2001) Soil analysis interpretation. A. Stamoulis Publications, Athens. (in Greek)Google Scholar
  61. Larson DF, Otsuka K, Matsumoto T, Kilic T (2013) Should African rural development strategies depend on smallholder farms? An exploration of the inverse-productivity hypothesis. Agric Econ 45:355–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Liu B, Tu C, Hu S, Gumpertz M, Ristaino JB (2007) Effect of organic, sustainable, and conventional management strategies in grower fields on soil physical, chemical, and biological factors and the incidence of Southern blight. Appl Soil Ecol 37:202–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Liu TQ, Fan DJ, Zhang XX, Chen J, Li CF, Cao CG (2015) Deep placement of nitrogen fertilizers reduces ammonia volatilization and increases nitrogen utilization efficiency in no-tillage paddy fields in central China. Field Crop Res 184:80–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lopez-Bellido R, Shepherd C, Barraclough P (2004) Predicting post-anthesis N requirements of bread wheat with a Minolta SPAD meter. Eur J Agron 20:313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lowder SK, Skoet J, Raney T (2016) The number, size, and distribution of farms, smallholder farms, and family farms worldwide. World Dev 87:16–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lu C, Tian H (2017) Global nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use for agriculture production in the past half century: shifted hot spots and nutrient imbalance. Earth Syst Sci Data 9:181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lucas JA (2010) Advances in plant disease and pest management. J Agric Sci 149:91–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Łukowiak R, Grzebisz W, Sassenrath GF (2016) New insights into phosphorus management in agriculture—a crop rotation approach. Sci Total Environ 542:1062–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Marles RJ (2017) Mineral nutrient composition of vegetables, fruits and grains: the context of reports of apparent historical declines. J Food Compos Anal 56:93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Masso C, Baijukya F, Ebanyat P, Bouaziz S, Wendt J, Bekunda M, Vanlauwe B (2017) Dilemma of nitrogen management for future food security in sub-Saharan Africa – a review. Soil Res 55:425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Masters WA, Djurfeldt AA, De Haan C, Hazell P, Jayne T, Jirström M, Reardon T (2013) Urbanization and farm size in Asia and Africa: implications for food security and agricultural research. Glob Food Sec 2:156–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Matheyarasu R, Sheshadri B, Bolan NS, Naidu R (2017) Nutrient budgeting as an approach to assess and manage the impacts of long-term irrigation using abattoir wastewater water. Air Soil Pollut 228:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Maxwell S (2005) Six characters (and a few more) in search of an author: how to rescue rural development before it’s too late. Agric Econ 32:61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Meena RS, Yadav RS (2014) Phonological performance of groundnut varieties under sowing environments in hyper arid zone of Rajasthan, India. J App and Nat Sci 6(2):344–348Google Scholar
  75. Meena RS, Kumar S, Pandey A (2017) Response of sulfur and lime levels on productivity, nutrient content and uptake of sesame under guava (Psidium guajava L.) based agri-horti system in an acidic soil of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. J Crop and Weed 13(2):222–227Google Scholar
  76. Meena RS, Kumar V, Yadav GS, Mitran T (2018) Response and interaction of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soybean rhizosphere: a review. Plant Growth Regul 84:207–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Meisinger JJ, Randall GW (1991) Estimating nitrogen budgets for soil–crop systems. In: Follett, et al. (ed) Managing nitrogen for groundwater quality and farm profitability. SSSA, Madison, pp 85–124Google Scholar
  78. Meisinger J, Delgado J (2002) Principles for managing nitrogen leaching. J Soil Water Conserv 57:485–498Google Scholar
  79. Mendes R et al (2011) Deciphering the rhizosphere microbiome for disease-suppressive bacteria. Science 332:1097–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mole B (2014) Earth & environment: nutrients may drop as CO2rises: crops’ iron, zinc and protein may fall 5 to 10 percent by 2050. Sci News 185:12–12Google Scholar
  81. Mosier A, Doran J, Freney J (2002) Managing soil denitrification. J Soil Water Conserv 57:505–512Google Scholar
  82. Nagayets O (2005) Small farms: current status and key trends. In: The future of small farms, vol 355. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  83. Nihorimbere V, Ongena M, Smargiassi M, Thonart P (2011) Beneficial effect of the rhizosphere microbial community for plant growth and health. Biotechnol Agron Soc Environ 15:327–337Google Scholar
  84. Njoroge S, Zingore S (2015) 4R practices for efficient phosphorus management in Western Kenya, vol 99. IPNI, NorcrossGoogle Scholar
  85. Noor MA (2017) Nitrogen management and regulation for optimum NUE in maize–a mini review. Cogent Food Agric 3(1):1348214Google Scholar
  86. Palta JA, Fillery IRP (1995) N application increases pre-anthesis contribution of dry matter to grain yield in wheat grown on a duplex soil. Aust J Agric Res 46:507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pathak H, Bhatia A, Jain N, Aggarwal P (2010) Greenhouse gas emission and mitigation in Indian agriculture–a review. In: ING bulletins on regional assessment of reactive nitrogen, bulletin, vol 19. ING, SCON, New Delhi, pp 1–34Google Scholar
  88. Pathak H, Jain N, Bhatia A, Kumar A, Chatterjee D (2016) Improved nitrogen management: a key to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Indian J Fertil 12:151–162Google Scholar
  89. Paul EA (2014) Soil microbiology, ecology, and biochemistry. In: Perspective soil microbiology, ecology and biochemistry. Elsevier Science, Saint Louis, pp 3–24Google Scholar
  90. Peoples MB, Mosier AR, Freney JR (1995) Minimizing gaseous losses of nitrogen. In: Bacon PE (ed) Nitrogen fertilization in the environment. Dekker, New York, pp 565–602Google Scholar
  91. Pidwirny M (2002) Fundamentals of physical geography. Introduction to biogeography and ecology. The nitrogen cycle British Columbia CanadaGoogle Scholar
  92. Raju S (1989) Fertiliser use in Andhra Pradesh: an analysis of factors affecting consumption. Artha Vijnana: J Gokhale Inst Polit Econ 31:313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Raun WR, Johnson GV (1999) Improving nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. Agron J 91:357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Reeve JR, Schadt CW, Carpenter-Boggs L, Kang S, Zhou J, Reganold JP (2010) Effects of soil type and farm management on soil ecological functional genes and microbial activities. ISME J 4:1099–1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rodelas B, González-López J, Martínez-Toledo MV, Pozo C, Salmerón V (1999) Influence of Rhizobium/Azotobacter and Rhizobium/Azospirillum combined inoculation on mineral composition of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Biol Fertil Soils 29:165–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Roe M, Pinchen H, Church S, Finglas P (2015) McCance and Widdowson’s the composition of foods seventh summary edition and updated composition of foods integrated dataset. Nutr Bull 40:36–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Savci S (2012) An agricultural pollutant: chemical fertilizer. Int J Environ Sci Dev 3:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schadt CW, Classen AT (2007) Soil microbiology, ecology, and biochemistry. Soil Sci Soc Am J 71:1420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schulte RPO, Creamer RE, Donnellan T, Farrelly N, Fealy R, O’Donoghue C, O’hUallachain D (2014) Functional land management: a framework for managing soil-based ecosystem services for the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Environ Sci Pol 38:45–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Shaffer MJ, Delgado JA (2002) Essentials of a national nitrate leaching index assessment tool. J Soil Water Conserv 57:327–335Google Scholar
  101. Shaharoona B, Naveed M, Arshad M, Zahir ZA (2008) Fertilizer-dependent efficiency of Pseudomonads for improving growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 79:147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Shcherbak I, Millar N, Robertson GP (2014) Global metaanalysis of the nonlinear response of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to fertilizer nitrogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci 111:9199–9204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Smil V (2000) Phosphorus in the environment: natural flows and human interferences. Annu Rev Energy Environ 25:53–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Smith T, Rana RS, Missiaen P, Rose KD, Sahni A, Singh H, Singh L (2007) High bat (Chiroptera) diversity in the Early Eocene of India. Naturwissenschaften 94:1003–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Solanki RL, Naagar KC, Agarwal SK (2017) Effect of fertilizer based on soil testing for better production of maize (Zea mays L.) in South Rajasthan, India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6:725–728.  https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.608.092 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Souza RM, Sobral LF, Viégas PRA, Oliveira A Jr, Carvalho MCS (2014) Eficiência agronômica de fosfatos de rocha em solo com elevado teor de cálcio trocável. Rev Bras Ciênc Solo 38:1816–1825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Stotzky G, Norman AG (1961) Factors limiting microbial activities in soil. Arch Mikrobiol 40:341–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Suh S, Yee S (2011) Phosphorus use-efficiency of agriculture and food system in the US. Chemosphere 84:806–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sun X et al (2017) Subsoiling practices change root distribution and increase post-anthesis dry matter accumulation and yield in summer maize. PLoS One 12:e0174952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sylvia DM, Fuhrmann JJ, Hartel PG, Zuberer DA (2005) Principles and applications of soil microbiology, vol QR111 S674 2005. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  111. Tabuchi M, Sugiyama K, Ishiyama K, Inoue E, Sato T, Takahashi H, Yamaya T (2005) Severe reduction in growth rate and grain filling of rice mutants lacking OsGS1;1, a cytosolic glutamine synthetase 1;1. Plant J 42:641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tamene L, Amede T, Kihara J, Tibebe D, Schulz S (2017) A review of soil fertility management and crop response to fertilizer application in Ethiopia: towards development of site-and context-specific fertilizer recommendationGoogle Scholar
  113. Teeling EC, Springer MS, Madsen O, Bates P, O’Brien SJ, Murphy WJ (2005) A molecular phylogeny for bats illuminates biogeography and the fossil record. Science 307:580–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tilman D (2001) Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Science 292:281–284.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1057544 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tisdale S, Nelson W, Beaton J, Havlin J (1993) Soil fertility and fertilizers. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York 5thGoogle Scholar
  116. UNEP, UNIDO, IFA (1998) Mineral fertilizer production and the environment part 1. United Nations Enviornment Programme, Industry and the Environment, ParisGoogle Scholar
  117. Vanlauwe B et al (2015) Integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: unravelling local adaptation. Soil 1:491–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Vonk J, Shackelford TK (eds) (2012) The Oxford handbook of comparative evolutionary psychology. Oxford Library of Psychology. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  119. White PJ, Brown PH (2010) Plant nutrition for sustainable development and global health. Ann Bot 105:1073–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wiggins S, Kirsten J, Llambí L (2010) The future of small farms. World Dev 38:1341–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Withers PJA et al (2015) Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency: the case of Europe. Ambio 44:193–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. World Bank (2007) World development report 2008 (overview). The World Bank.  https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7297-5
  123. Wu M, Li G, Li W, Liu J, Liu M, Jiang C, Li Z (2017) Nitrogen fertilizer deep placement for increased grain yield and nitrogen recovery efficiency in rice grown in Subtropical China. Front Plant Sci 8:1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zahoor W, Khanzada H, Bashir U, Aziz K, Zahir S, Faheem A (2014) Role of nitrogen fertilizer in crop productivity and environmental pollution. Int J Agric For 4:201–206Google Scholar
  125. Zaidi A, Khan MS, Amil M (2003) Interactive effect of rhizotrophic microorganisms on yield and nutrient uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Eur J Agron 19:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Zhu Z (2000) Loss of fertilizer N from plants-soil system and the strategies and techniques for its reduction. Soil Environ Sci 9:1–6Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehmood Ali Noor
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Mohsin Nawaz
    • 1
  • Mahmood ul Hassan
    • 2
  • Alam Sher
    • 3
  • Tariq Shah
    • 4
  • Muhammad Mohsin Abrar
    • 5
  • Umair Ashraf
    • 6
  • Sajid Fiaz
    • 7
  • Mohammed A. Basahi
    • 8
  • Waqas Ahmed
    • 5
  • Wei Ma
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and EcologyMinistry of AgricultureBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Plant Nutrition, College of Resources and Environmental SciencesChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.School of AgronomyAnhui Agricultural UniversityHefeiChina
  4. 4.Key Laboratory of Oil Crop Biology and Genetic ImprovementOil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesWuhanChina
  5. 5.National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional PlanningChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina
  6. 6.Department of Botany, University of EducationLahorePakistan
  7. 7.State Key Laboratory of Rice BiologyChina National Rice Research InstituteHangzhouChina
  8. 8.Department of Biology, College of Science & ArtsSajir, Shaqra UniversityShaqraSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations