Cultivation of Medicinal Plants: Special Reference to Important Medicinal Plants of India

  • Tridip Bhattacharjee
  • Saikat Sen
  • Raja Chakraborty
  • Praveen Kumar Maurya
  • Arup Chattopadhyay


Medicinal plants are a source of biomolecules with therapeutic potential and as a lead to develop new drugs. Herbal medicines are considered as safer, better physiological compatibility and cost-effective. India is a gold mine of medicinal plants and a rich repository of traditional medicinal knowledge. Demand for the medicinal plant is increasing with expansion in human needs, numbers and trade purpose. Plants are mostly collected from wild sources that may pose a serious situation, along with this loss of biodiversity and forest is another major concern for sustainable supply of medicinal plants in the future. With the increased realization that many species are collected from wild sources and being over-exploited, agencies (private/public) are recommending bringing the important medicinal plants into cultivation systems. Cultivation of medicinal plant can decrease the amount to which wild populations are harvested, it will also help to preserve plant species from extinction and will promote socio-economic growth. This chapter deals with the medicinal importance and cultivation of yam, sarpagandha, opium, periwinkle, aloe, guggal, belladonna, nux vomica, medicinal solanum, aonla/amla, senna, isubgol, stevia, coleus, acorus, and ocimum.


Medicinal plants Cultivation Preservation Therapeutic use Phytomolecules 


  1. Akbar S, Khan SA, Masood A, Iqbal M. Use of Strychnos Nux-Vomica (Azraqi) seeds in Unani system of medicine: role of detoxification. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2010;7(4):286–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ansari AK. Study of Plant Tulsi and its benefits for human beings. Int J Appl Res. 2015;1(3):148–51.Google Scholar
  3. Balasankar D, Vanilarasu K, Preetha PS, et al. Senna—a medical miracle plant. J Med Plants Stud. 2013;1(3):41–7.Google Scholar
  4. Behera MC, Mohanty TL, Paramanik BK. Silvics, phytochemistry and ethnopharmacy of endangered poison nut tree (Strychnos nux-vomica L.): a review. J Pharmacog Phytochem. 2017;6(5):1207–16.Google Scholar
  5. Bhattacharjee T, Sen D, Das SP, Datta M. Underutilized tuber crops for food, feed and nutritional security in Tripura. Int J Biores Sci. 2015;2(3):241–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhowal M, Mehta DM. Coleus forskholii: phytochemical and pharmacological profile. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2017;8(9):3599–18.Google Scholar
  7. Chalise U. The poppy plant: phytochemistry & pharmacology. Indo Global J Pharma Sci. 2015;5(1):58–65.Google Scholar
  8. Chauhan S, Kaur A, Pareek RK. Pharmacobotanical and pharmacological evaluation of Ayurvedic crude drug: Rauwolfia serpentina (Apocynaceae). Int J Green Pharm. 2017;11(4):S686–93.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen MM. Tulsi—Ocimum sanctum: a herb for all reasons. J Ayur Integr Med. 2014;5(4):4251–9.Google Scholar
  10. Das S, Sharangi AB. Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L.): diverse medicinal and therapeutic benefits to humankind. J Pharmacog Phytochem. 2017;6(5):1695–701.Google Scholar
  11. Das S, Dutta Choudhury M, Mazumder PB. In vitro propagation of genus Dioscorea—a critical review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2013;6:26–30.Google Scholar
  12. De Luca V, Salim V, Atsumi SM, Yu F. Mining the biodiversity of plants: a revolution in the making. Science. 2012;336:1658–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deokar G, Kshirsagar S, Deore P, Kakulte H. Pharmaceutical benefits of Plantago ovate (Isabgol seed): a review. Pharm Biol Eval. 2016;3:32–41.Google Scholar
  14. Deori C, Das S, Bordoloi SK. Study of hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis (AMLA) in Albino rats. J Evid Based Med Healthc. 2017;4(54):3298–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Devi N, Gupta AK, Prajapati SK. Indian tribe’s and villager’s health and habits: popularity of apocynaceae plants as medicine. Int J Green Pharm. 2017;11:256.Google Scholar
  16. Dey A, DE JN. Rauvolfia serpentina (L). Benth. ex Kurz.- a review. Asian J Plant Sci. 2010;9:285–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dhakad D, Choudhary S, Wankhede A, Swarnakar VK. Knowledge and adoption level of improved production technology among opium poppy growers in Mandsaur District (M.P.). Int J Appl Agric Res. 2017;12(3):325–31.Google Scholar
  18. Gaire BP, Subedi L. Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Chin J Integr Med. 2014;
  19. Galani VJ, Patel DM. A comprehensive phytopharmacological review of Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. Int J Environ Sci Nat Res. 2017;4(5):1–11.Google Scholar
  20. Ganapaty S, Thomas PS, Ramana KV, Vidyadhar K, Chakradhar V. A review of phytochemical studies of Cassia species. J Nat Remid. 2002;2:102–20.Google Scholar
  21. Haddadian K, Haddadian K, Zahmatkash M. A review of plantago plant. Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2014;13:681–5.Google Scholar
  22. Hasan MR, Islam MN, Islam MR. Phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and traditional uses of Emblica officinalis: a review. Int Curr Pharma J. 2016;5(2):14–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hazra B, Sarkar R, Biswas S, Mandal N. Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. BMC Complemen Altern Med. 2010;10(20):1–15.Google Scholar
  24. Imam H, Riaz Z, Azhar M, Sofi G, Hussain A. Sweet flag (Acorus calamus Linn.): an incredible medicinal herb. Int J Green Pharm. 2013;7:288–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Joy PP, Thomas J, Mathew S, Skaria BP. Medicinal plants. Kerala Agricultural University. Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research Station. 1998. pp. 1–211.Google Scholar
  26. Kala CP, Dhyani PP, Sajwan BS. Developing the medicinal plants sector in northern India: challenges and opportunities. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006;2:32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kalshetti P, Thakurdesai P, Alluri R. A review on bioactive phytoconstituents and pharmacological uses of Commiphora mukul. J Curr Pharma Res. 2014;5:1392–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kanu AN, Ezeocha CV, Ogunka NP. A review on bioactive compounds of yam varieties for human disease management. Asian Food Sci J. 2018;1(4):1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kulkarni KV, Adavirao BV. A review on: Indian traditional shrub Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum): the unique medicinal plant. J Med Plants Studies. 2018;6(2):106–10.Google Scholar
  30. Kulkarni KV, Ghurghure SM. Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis): complete pharmacognosy review. Int J Chem Studies. 2018;2:5–11.Google Scholar
  31. Kumari R, Rathib B, Ranic A, Bhatnagar S. Rauvolfia serpentina L. Benth. ex Kurz.: phytochemical, pharmacological and therapeutic aspects. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2013;23(2):348–55.Google Scholar
  32. Long JL. The gale encyclopedia of alternative medicine, vil I. 2nd ed. Detroit: Thomson; 2005.Google Scholar
  33. Maan AA, Nazir A, Khan MKI, et al. The therapeutic properties and applications of aloe vera: a review. J Herb Med. 2018;12:1–10. Scholar
  34. Maiti S, Geetha KA. Medicinal and aromatic plants in India. 2007.
  35. Mani D, Dhawan SS. Scientific basis of therapeutic uses of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) in Ayurveda. Actahorticulturae. 2014;1036:175–80.Google Scholar
  36. Mathur SI, Bulchandani N, Parihar S, Shekhawat GS. Critical review on steviol glycosides: pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic aspects of high potency zero caloric sweetener. Int J Pharmacol. 2017;13(7):916–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Meena AK, Rao MM, Singh A, Kumari S. Physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the rhizome of Acorus calamus Linn. Int J Pharma Pharm Sci. 2010;2(2):130–1.Google Scholar
  38. Meena VD, Dotania ML, Meena BP, Das H. Beena. Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.)—a medicinal herb: good source of income generation in water scarcity regions. Popular Kheti. 2015;3(4):2–5.Google Scholar
  39. Minwuyelet T, MogesSewalem M, Gashe M. Review on therapeutic uses of Aloe vera. Global J Pharmacol. 2017;11(2):14–20.Google Scholar
  40. Momtazi-Borojeni AA, Esmaeili SA, Abdollahi E, Sahebkar A. A review on the pharmacology and toxicology of steviol glycosides extracted from Stevia rebaudiana. Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(11):1616–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Moudi M, Go R, Yien CYS, Nazre M. Vinca alkaloids. Int J Preventive Med. 2013;4(11):1231–5.Google Scholar
  42. Nisar A, Mamat AS, Hatim MI, Aslam MS, Ahmad MS. An updated review on catharanthusroseus: phytochemical and pharmacological analysis. Ind Res J Pharm Sci. 2016;3(2):631–53.Google Scholar
  43. Nyeem MAB, Rashid AKMMU, Nowrose M, Hossain MA. Solanum nigrum (Maku): a review of pharmacological activities and clinical effects. Int J Appl Res. 2017;3(1):12–7.Google Scholar
  44. Patel K, Patel DK. Medicinal importance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of aloin: a concise report. J Acute Dis. 2013;2:262–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Patel DK, Patel K, Tahilyani V. Barbaloin: a concise report of its pharmacological and analytical aspects. Asian Pac Trop Biomed. 2012;2(10):835–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Patel K, Laloo D, Singh GK, Gadewar M, Patel DK. A review on medicinal uses, analytical techniques and pharmacological activities of Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.: a concise report. Chin J Integr Med. 2017;
  47. Pattanayak P, Behera P, Das D, Panda SK. Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: an overview. Pharmacog Rev. 2010;4(7):95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Paul R, Dutta KA. An updated overview on Atropa belladonna L. Int Res J Pharm. 2011;2:11–7.Google Scholar
  49. Radha MH, Laxmipriya NP. Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: a systematic review. J Tradit Complemen Med. 2015;5:21–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rajak AR, Singh R. Contribution of medicinal plants in economic growth. World J Pharma Pharma Sci. 2017;6:367–72.Google Scholar
  51. Rane MH, Sahu NK, Ajgoankar SS, Teli NC, Verma DR. A holistic approach on review of Solanumvirginianum. L. J Pharm Pharma Sci. 2014;3(3):1–4.Google Scholar
  52. Renjini KR, Gopakumar G, Latha MS. The medicinal properties of phytochemicals in catharanthusroseus—a review. Eur J Pharma Med Res. 2017;4(11):545–51.Google Scholar
  53. Saleem TSM, Chetty CM, Ramkanth S. Solanum nigrum Linn.—a review. Phcog Rev. 2009;3:342–5.Google Scholar
  54. Sarfraz RM, Khan H, Maheen S, et al. Plantago ovata: a comprehensive review on cultivation, biochemical, pharmaceutical and pharmacological aspects. Acta Pol Pharm. 2017;74:739–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Sarup P, Bala S, Kamboj S. Pharmacology and phytochemistry of oleo-gum resin of Commiphora wightii (Guggulu). Scientifica (Cairo). 2015;2015:138039. Scholar
  56. Sautour M, Mitaine-Offer A, Lacaille-Dubois M. The Dioscorea genus: a review of bioactive steroid saponins. J Nat Med. 2007;61:91–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sen S, Chakraborty R. Revival, Modernization and integration of Indian traditional herbal medicine in clinical practice: importance, challenges and future. J Trad Complemen Med. 2017;7:234–44.Google Scholar
  58. Sen S, Chakraborty R, De B. Challenges and opportunities in the advancement of herbal medicine: India’s position and role in global context. J Herb Med. 2011;1(3–4):67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sharma P, Kharkwal AC, Kharkwal H, Abdin MZ, Varma A. A review on pharmacological properties of Aloe vera. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2014a;29(2):31–7.Google Scholar
  60. Sharma V, Singh S, Chaudhary P. Acorus calamus (the healing plant): a review on its medicinal potential, micropropagation and conservation. Nat Prod Res. 2014b;28(18):1454–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sharma V, Hem K, Seth A, Maurya SK. Solanum indicum Linn.: an ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and pharmacological review. Curr Res J Pharma Allied Sci. 2017;1:1–9.Google Scholar
  62. Sreeramu BB. Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic crops. Hyderabad, India: University Press Pvt. Ltd; 2004.Google Scholar
  63. Subharani K. Chemical constituents and medicinal properties of Solanum xanthocarpum. A review. Int J Sci Res. 2016;5(10):824–6.Google Scholar
  64. Sunitha K, Swapna D. Preliminary evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Solanum khasianum berries. Int J Pharmacog Phytochem Res. 2014;6(1):104–6.Google Scholar
  65. Tripathi YC. Cassia Angustifolia, a versatile medicinal crop. Int Tree Crops J. 1999;10:121–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wolwer-Rieck U. The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), their constituents and the analyses thereof: a review. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:886–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tridip Bhattacharjee
    • 1
  • Saikat Sen
    • 2
  • Raja Chakraborty
    • 2
  • Praveen Kumar Maurya
    • 3
  • Arup Chattopadhyay
    • 3
  1. 1.College of AgricultureLembucherraIndia
  2. 2.Department of PharmacyAssam Down Town UniversityGuwahatiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Vegetable Science, Faculty of HorticultureBCKVNadiaIndia

Personalised recommendations