Advertisement

Drugs from Our Ancestors: Tradition to Innovation

  • Pulok K. MukherjeeEmail author
  • Subhadip Banerjee
  • Amit Kar
  • Joydeb Chanda
Chapter

Abstract

The history of medicine is ancient, the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, used in the maintenance of health, as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement, or treatment of physical and mental illnesses. The terms complementary/alternative/nonconventional drugs are used interchangeably with traditional medicine in some countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) acknowledges that ancient and practice of medicine are important parts of the healthcare system. The practices and public interest in natural therapies based on traditional practices have increased dramatically. This has raised the international trade of herbal medicine and attracted several pharmaceutical companies in commercializing herbal drugs (Heyman and Meyer 2012).

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors are thankful to the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, New Delhi, for financial support through Tata Innovation fellowship to PKM.

Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Hert J, Irwin JJ, Laggner C, Keiser MJ, Shoichet BK. Quantifying biogenic Bias in screening libraries. Nat Chem Biol. 2009;5:479–83.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Heyman HM, Meyer JJM. NMR-based metabolomics as a quality control tool for herbal products. S Afr J Bot. 2012;82:21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A. Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Drug Discov Today. 2006;5:821–34.Google Scholar
  4. Leonti M. CasuL.Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology. Front Pharmacol. 2013;4:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Liu H, Wang J, Zhou W, Wang Y, Yang L. Systems approaches and polypharmacology for drug discovery from herbal medicines: an example using licorice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;146:773–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mukherjee PK, Houghton PJ. The worldwide phenomenon of increased use of herbal products: opportunity and threats. In: Evaluation of herbal medicinal products – perspectives on quality, safety and efficacy. 1st ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2009. p. 3–12.Google Scholar
  7. Mukherjee PK, Maiti K, Mukherjee K, Houghton PJ. Leads from Indian medicinal plants with hypoglycemic potentials. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;106:1–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Mukherjee PK, Wahile A. Integrated approaches towards drug development from Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicines. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;103:25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mukherjee PK, Venkatesh P, Ponnusankar S. Ethnopharmacology and integrative medicine – let the history tell the future. J Ayur Integr Med. 2010;1(2):100–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mukherjee PK, Ponnusankar S, Venkatesh P. Synergy in herbal medicinal products: concept to realization. Indian J Pharma Res Edu. 2011;45(3):210–7.Google Scholar
  11. Mukherjee PK, Nema NK, Venkatesh P, Debnath PK. Changing scenario for promotion and development of Ayurveda - way forward. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143:424–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mukherjee PK, Bahadur S, Harwansh RK, Nema NK, Bhadra S. Development of traditional medicines: globalizing local knowledge or localizing global technologies. Pharma Times. 2013;45:39–42.Google Scholar
  13. Mukherjee PK, Bahadur S, Harwansh RK, Chaudhary SK. Shifting paradigm for validation of medicinal plants in Indian traditional medicine. Indian Drugs. 2014;51:5–14.Google Scholar
  14. Mukherjee PK, Chaudhary SK, Bahadur S, Debnath PK. Ethnopharmacology and integrative medicine: an Indian perspective. In: Heinrich M, Jäger AK, editors. Ethnopharmacology - a reader. Chichester: Wiley & Sons; 2015. p. 279–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mukherjee PK, Harwansh R, Bahadur S, Banerjee S, Kar A. Evidence based validation of Indian traditional medicine – way forward. World J Trad Chin Med. 2016;2:48–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mukherjee PK, Harwansh RK, Bahadur S, Banerjee S, Kar A, Chanda J, Biswas S, Ahmmed S, Katiyar CK. Development of Ayurveda – tradition to trend. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017a;197:10–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mukherjee PK, Bahadur S, Harwansh RK, Biswas S, Banerjee S. Paradigm shift in natural product research: traditional medicine inspired approaches. Phytochem Rev. 2017b;1:24.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-016-9489-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Newman DJ, Cragg GM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the last 25 years. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:461–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nirali JB, Shankar MB. Global market analysis of herbal drug formulations. Int J Ayur Pharm Chem. 2015;4:59–65.Google Scholar
  20. Reddy AS, Zhang S. Polypharmacology: drug discovery for the future. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2013;6  https://doi.org/10.1586/ecp.12.74.
  21. Ulrich-Merzenich G, Panek D, Zeitler H, Wagner H, Vetter H. New perspectives for synergy research with the “omics” technologies. Phytomedicine. 2009;16:495–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Verpoorte R, Crommelin D, Danhof M, Gilissen L, Schuitmaker H, Vander Greef J, Witkamp R. A systems view on the future of medicine: inspiration from Chinese medicine? J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;121:479–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wagner H. Synergy research: approaching a new generation of phytopharmaceuticals. Fitoterapia. 2011;82(1):34–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wagner H, Ulrich-Merzenich G. Synergy research: approaching a new generation of phytopharmaceuticals. Phytomedicine. 2009;16:97–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wang Y, Xiao J, Suzek TO, Zhang J, Wang J, Zhou Z, Han L, Karapetyan K, Dracheva S, Shoemaker BA, Bolton E, Gindulyte A, Bryant SH. PubChem’s BioAssay database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40(Database issue):D400–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yang Y, Zhang Z, Li S, Ye X, Li X, He K. Synergy effects of herb extracts: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic basis. Fitoterapia. 2014;92:133–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pulok K. Mukherjee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Subhadip Banerjee
    • 1
  • Amit Kar
    • 1
  • Joydeb Chanda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Natural Product StudiesJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations