Modes of Reproduction and Apomixis

  • P. M. Priyadarshan


Flowering plants follow either one of these three fundamentally different modes of reproduction: (a) through cross-pollinated seeds, (b) self-pollinated seeds and (c) asexual (vegetative) means. Mode of reproduction is a decisive factor in moulding population structure and evolutionary potential. All three modes are being used by perennial plants. Apomixis is another way of asexual reproduction. The sexual life cycle of vascular plants follows haploid and diploid generations in an alternate fashion. Haploid spores are produced by diploid sporophytes through meiosis. Haploid egg and sperm are produced by gametophytes through mitosis. Egg and sperm unite to form diploid zygotes from which new sporophytes develop. When offspring are produced through modifications of the sexual life cycle avoiding meiosis and syngamy, the process is asexual reproduction.


Sexual reproduction Vegetative (asexual) reproduction Apomixis Gametophytic apomixis Sporophytic apomixes Genetics of apomixis Apomixis in agriculture 

Further Reading

  1. Holsinger KE (2017) Reproductive systems and evolution in vascular plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:7037–7042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Said H, Jan F, David (2016) Male gametophyte development and function in angiosperms: a general concept. Plant Reproduct 29:31–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Tucker MR, Koltunow AMG (2009) Sexual and asexual (apomictic) seed development in flowering plants: molecular, morphological and evolutionary relationships. Funct Plant Biol 36:490–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Smet et al (2010) Embryogenesis – the humble beginnings of plant life. Plant J 61:959–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Koltunow A, Grossniklaus U (2003) APOMIXIS: a developmental perspective. Annu Rev Plant Biol 54:547–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hafidh S (2016) Male gametophyte development and function in angiosperms: a general concept. Plant Reprod 29:31–51. Scholar
  7. Khanday I et al (2018) A male-expressed rice embryogenic trigger redirected for asexual propagation through seeds. Nature. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. M. Priyadarshan
    • 1
  1. 1.Erstwhile Deputy DirectorRubber Research Institute of IndiaKottayamIndia

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