Genetic Engineering

  • P. M. Priyadarshan


Manipulating the genetic material of an organism as per the will of man is genetic engineering. Such manipulated organisms are genetically modified organisms (GMOs). One definition of GMO is an organism whose genetic material has been modified in a way that is not made possible by nature. Another acceptable definition is artificial modification of an organism’s genetic composition. Such modifications are carried out through transfer of a gene taken from cells of another donor organism. Genes transferred are known as transgenes. Creation of genetically modified organisms requires recombinant DNA. Recombinant DNA is a combination of DNA from different organisms or different locations in a given genome that would not normally be found in nature. Recombinant DNA technology was first achieved in 1973 by Herbert Boyer of the University of California at San Francisco and Stanley Cohan of Stanford University who used E. coli restriction enzymes to insert foreign DNA into plasmids.


Restriction Endonucleases Techniques for Producing Transgenic Plants Engineering Insect Resistance Engineering Herbicide Tolerance Site-Directed Nucleases What and Why CRISPR? 

Further Reading

  1. Ara K, Peter BK (2009). Recent advances in plant biotechnology. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  2. Arencibia AD (2000) Plant genetic engineering: towards the third millennium. Elsevier, Amsterdam, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrangou R et al (2007) CRISPR provides acquired resistance against viruses in prokaryotes. Science 315:1709–1712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Daniel HH (2005) A guild of 45 CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein families and multiple CRISPR/Cas subtypes exist in prokaryotic genomes. PLoS Comput Biol 1:474–483Google Scholar
  5. Frank K, Christian J (Eds.) (2010) Genetic modification of plants agriculture, horticulture and forestry. Series: Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, Vol. 64. 675 p. Springer
  6. Jackson JF, Linskens HF (2010) Genetic transformation of plants. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Scott NW, Fowler MR, Slater A (2008) Plant biotechnology: the genetic manipulation of plants. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  8. Setlow JK (2004) Genetic engineering: principles and methods. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Songstad DD, Petolino JF, Voytas DF, Reichert NA (2017) Genome editing of plants. Crit Rev. Plant SciCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. M. Priyadarshan
    • 1
  1. 1.Erstwhile Deputy DirectorRubber Research Institute of IndiaKottayamIndia

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