Manipulating the genetic material of an organism as per the will of man is genetic engineering. Such manipulated organisms are genetically modified organisms (GMOs). One definition of GMO is an organism whose genetic material has been modified in a way that is not made possible by nature. Another acceptable definition is artificial modification of an organism’s genetic composition. Such modifications are carried out through transfer of a gene taken from cells of another donor organism. Genes transferred are known as transgenes. Creation of genetically modified organisms requires recombinant DNA. Recombinant DNA is a combination of DNA from different organisms or different locations in a given genome that would not normally be found in nature. Recombinant DNA technology was first achieved in 1973 by Herbert Boyer of the University of California at San Francisco and Stanley Cohan of Stanford University who used E. coli restriction enzymes to insert foreign DNA into plasmids.
KeywordsRestriction Endonucleases Techniques for Producing Transgenic Plants Engineering Insect Resistance Engineering Herbicide Tolerance Site-Directed Nucleases What and Why CRISPR?
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