Interaction of Rhizobacteria with Soil Microorganisms: An Agro-Beneficiary Aspect

  • Anita Surendra PatilEmail author
  • Surendra Rajaram Patil
  • R. Z. Sayyed
Part of the Microorganisms for Sustainability book series (MICRO, volume 13)


The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been extensively used for the plant growth enhancement in agriculture and horticulture in several ways. Several PGPR formulations with modified technology are nowadays available for increasing agriculture production. Microbial communities are associated with plants that are highly diverse and specifically associated with types of plant species, which controls plant health via several mechanisms. Recent evidence supports the fact that plants under attack recruit beneficial microbes into their rhizosphere, which supports plant growth via various direct and indirect mechanisms. It is essential to develop proper understanding of interactions between host plants and associated microbial community to elucidate their role in crop improvement. The research is being focused on establishing the facts about their mutualistic interactions and diversity, so they can be exploited for biocontrol and growth promoters. Efforts are still needed to know more about plant microbiomes as a system that can further help in analyzing the complex interactions.


Rhizobacteria Plant microbiomes Microbial mutual interactions Growth-promoting mechanisms 



The authors would like to thank the Department of Biotechnology, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati, Maharashtra, India, for providing the research facilities and support.

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflict of interest.


  1. Abeles FB, Morgan PW, Saltveit ME Jr (1992) Ethylene in plant biology. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal PK, Agrawal S (2013) Characterization of Bacillus sp. strains isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) for their use as potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2:406–417Google Scholar
  3. Ahmad M, Zahir ZA, Khalid M (2013) Efficacy of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains to improve physiology, ionic balance and quality of mung bean under salt-affected conditions on farmer’s fields. Plant Physiol Biochem 63:170–176PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmed F, Ahmad I, Khan MS (2008) Screening of free-living rhizospheric bacteria for their multiple plant growth promoting activities. Microbiol Res 163:173–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arora NK, Kang SC, Maheshwari DK (2001) Isolation of siderophore producing strains of Rhizobium meliloti and their biocontrol potential against Macrophomina phaseolina that causes charcoal rot of groundnut. Curr Sci 81:673–677Google Scholar
  6. Bailey BA, Bae H, Strem MD et al (2006) Fungal and plant gene expression during the colonization of cacao seedlings by endophytic isolates of four Trichoderma species. Plantarum 224:1449–1464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker R, Elad Y, Sneh B (1986) Physical, biological and host factors in iron competition in soils. In: Swinburne (ed) Iron, siderophores, and plant diseases. Plenum Pub Corp, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Bakker AW, Schippers P (1987) Microbial cyanide production in the rhizosphere in relation to potato yield reduction and Pseudomonas spp.-mediated plant growth-stimulation. Soil Biol Biochem 19:451–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bakker PAHM, Pieterse CMJ, Van Loon LC (2007) Induced systemic resistance by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Phytopathology 97:239–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bansal RK (2009) Synergistic effect of Rhizobium, PSB, and PGPR on nodulation and grain yield of mungbean. J Food Legumes 22(1):37–39Google Scholar
  11. Barazani O, Friedman J (1999) Is IAA the major root growth factor secreted from plant-growth mediating bacteria? J Chem Ecol 25(10):2397–2406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barea J-M, Pozo MJ, Azco’n R, Azco’n-Aguilar C (2005) Microbial co-operation in the rhizosphere. J Exp Bot 56:1761–1778PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bashan Y, Levanony H (1989) Factors affecting the adsorption of Azospirillum brasilense Cd to root hairs as compared with root surface of wheat. Can J Microbiol 35:936–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bastián F, Cohen A, Piccoli P et al (1998) Production of indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellins A1 and A3 by Acetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum seropedicaein chemically-defined culture media. Plant Growth Regul 24(1):7–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berendsen RL, Pieterse CM, Bakker PA (2012) The rhizosphere microbiome and plant health. Trends Plant Sci 17(8):478–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Biswas JC, Ladha JK, Dazzo FB (2000) Rhizobia inoculation improves nutrient uptake and growth of lowland rice. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:1644–1650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buee M, Reich M, Murat FM (2009) 454 Pyrosequencing analysis of forest soils reveal an unexpectedly high fungal diversity. New Phytol 184:449–456PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Burdman S, Jurkevitch E, Okon Y (2000) Recent advances in the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agriculture. In: Subba Rao NS, Dommergues YR (eds) Microbial interactions in agriculture and forestry. Science Publishers, Enfield, pp 229–250Google Scholar
  19. Burns TA, Bishop PE, Israel DW (1981) Enhanced nodulation of leguminous plant roots by mixed cultures of Azotobacter vinelandii and Rhizobium. Plant Soil 62:399–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carson KC, Meyer JM, Dilworth MJ (2000) Hydroxamate siderophores of root nodule bacteria. Soil Biol Biochem 32:11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cassan F, Maiale S, Masciarelli O et al (2009) Cadaverine production by Azospirillum brasilense and its possible role in plant growth promotion and osmotic stress mitigation. Eur J Soil Biol 45:12–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cherrington CA, Elliott LF (1987) Incidence of inhibitory pseudomonads in the PaciWc Northwest. Plant Soil 101:159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Choudhary DK, Sharma KP, Gaur RK (2011) Biotechnological perspectives of microbes in agro-ecosystems. Biotechnol Lett 33:1905–1910PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Clegg C, Murray P (2002) Soil microbial ecology and plant root interaction. In: Gordon AJ (ed) Soil microbial ecology. IGER Innovations, Aberystwyth, pp 36–39Google Scholar
  25. Compant S, Duffy B, Nowak J (2005) Use of plant growth-promoting bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases: principles, mechanisms of action, and future prospects. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:4951–4959PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Curl EA, Truelove B (1986) The Rhizosphere, Advanced series in agricultural sciences, vol 288. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York/Tokyo, p 57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Davies P (ed) (2013) Plant hormones: physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Dey R, Pal KK, Bhatt DM et al (2004) Growth promotion and yield enhancement of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Microbiol Res 159:371–394PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Dobbelaere S, Vanderleyden J, Okon Y (2003) Plant growth promoting effects of diazotrophs in the rhizosphere. CRC Crit Rev Plant Sci 22:107–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dobereiner J, Pedrosa FO (1987) Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in non-leguminous crop plants. Springer, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  31. Eberl L (1999) N-acyl homoserine lactone-mediated gene regulation in Gram-negative bacteria. Syst Appl Microbiol 22:493–506PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Egamberdiyeva D (2007) The effect of plant growth promoting bacteria on growth and nutrient uptake of maize in two different soils. Appl Soil Ecol 36:184–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Egamberdieva D et al (2008) High incidence of plant growth stimulating bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of wheat grown on salinated soil in Uzbekistan. Environ Microbiol 10:1–9Google Scholar
  34. Egamberdieva D, Lugtenberg B (2014) Use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to alleviate salinity stress in plants. In: Use of microbes for the alleviation of soil stresses. Springer, New York, pp p73–p96Google Scholar
  35. Elkoca E, Kantar F, Sahin F (2008) Influence of nitrogen and phosphorus solubilizing bacteria on the nodulation, plant growth and yield of chickpea. J Plant Nutr 31:157–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Flores-Felix JD, Silva LR, Rivera LP (2015) Plants probiotics as a tool to produce highly functional fruits: the case of Phyllobacterium and vitamin C in strawberries. PLoS One 10(4):e0122281PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fuentes-Ramirez LE, Bustillos-Cristalles R, Tapia-Hernandez A et al (2001) Novel nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria Gluconacetobacter johannae sp. nov.and Gluconacetobacter zotocaptans sp. nov. associated with coffee plants. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:p1305–p1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fuqua C, Winans SC, Greenberg EP (1994) Quorum sensing in bacteria: the LuxR-LuxI family of cell density-responsive transcriptional regulators. J Bacteriol 176:269–275PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Galleguillos C, Aguirre C, Barea JM et al (2000) Growth promoting the effect of two Sinorhizobium meliloti strains (a wild type and its genetically modified derivative) on a non-legume plant species in specific interaction with two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Sci 159(1):57–63PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Gams W (2007) Biodiversity of soil-inhabiting fungi. Biodivers Conserv 16:69–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Garcia-Fraile P, Menendez E, Rivas R (2015) Role of bacterial biofertilizers in agriculture and forestry. AIMS Bioeng 2(3):183–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Glick BR (1995) The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Can J Microbiol 41:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Glick BR (2005) Modulation of plant ethylene levels by the bacterial enzyme ACC deaminase. FEMS Microbiol Lett 251:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Glick BR (2012) Plant growth-promoting bacteria: mechanisms and applications. Scientifica. ArticleID 963401Google Scholar
  45. Glick BR (2014) Bacteria with ACC deaminase can promote plant growth and help to feed the world. Microbiol Res 169:30–39PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Glick BR, Patten CL, Holguin G, Penrose DM (1999) Biochemical and genetic mechanisms used by plant growth promoting bacteria. Imperial College Press, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Glick BR, Cheng Z, Czarny J et al (2007) Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producing soil bacteria. Eur J Plant Pathol 119:329–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gopalakrishnan S, Sathya A, Vijayabharathi R et al (2015) Plant growth promoting rhizobia: challenges and opportunities. 3 Biotech 5(4):355–377PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gray EJ, Smith DL (2005) Intracellular and extracellular PGPR: commonalities and distinctions in the plant-bacterium signaling processes. Soil Biol Biochem 37:395–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Haas D, Defago G (2005) Biological control of soil-borne pathogens by fluorescent Pseudomonads. Nat Rev Microbiol 3:307–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hoitink H, Boehm M (1999) Biocontrol within the context of soil microbial communities: a substrate-dependent phenomenon. Annu Rev Phytopathol 3:427–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hughes DF, Jolley VD, Brown JC (1992) Roles for potassium in the iron stress response mechanism of strategy I and strategy II plants. J Plant Nutr 15:1821–1839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hurek T, Hurek BR, Montagu MV et al (1994) Root colonization and systemic spreading of Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 in grasses. J Bacteriol 176(7):1913–1923PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaymak DC (2010) Potential of PGPR in agricultural innovations. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Plant growth and health promoting bacteria. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  55. Kiely PD, Haynes JM, Higgins CH et al (2006) Exploiting new systems-based strategies to elucidate plant-bacterial interactions in the rhizosphere. Microb Ecol 51:257–266PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Kloepper JW (1996) Biological control agents vary in specificity for the host, pathogen control, ecological habitat, and environmental conditions. Bio Sci 46:406–409Google Scholar
  57. Kloepper JW, Schroth MN (1978) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on radishes. In: In Station de Pathologie, proceedings of the 4th international conference on plant pathogenic bacteria, Tours, France. Vegetale et Phyto-Bacteriologie, pp 879–882Google Scholar
  58. Kloepper JW, Leong J, Teintze M et al (1980) Enhanced plant growth by siderophores produced by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Nature 286:885–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kloepper JW, Lifshitz R, Zablotowicz RM (1989) Free-living bacterial inocula for enhancing crop productivity. Trends Biotechnol 7:39–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kumar H, Bajpai VK, Dubey RC (2010) Wilt disease management and enhancement of growth and yield of Cajanus cajan (L) var. Manak by bacterial combinations amended with chemical fertilizer. Crop Prot 29:591–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kundan R, Pant G, Jadon N, Agrawal PK (2015) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: mechanism and current perspective. J Fertil Pestic 6:155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lavakush YJ, Verma JP, Jaiswal DK et al (2014) Evaluation of PGPR and different concentration of phosphorous level on plant growth, yield and nutrient content of rice (Oryza Sativa). Ecol Eng 62:123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Leong J (1996) Siderophores: their biochemistry and possible role in the biocontrol of plant pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 24:187–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Liu XM, Feng ZB, Zhang FD et al (2006) Preparation and testing of cementing and coating nano-sub nanocomposites of slow/controlled-release fertilizer. Agric Sci China 5:700–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Loper JE, Buyer JS (1991) Siderophores in microbial interactions on plant surfaces. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 4:5–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Loper JE, Schroth MN (1986) Importance of siderophore in microbial interactions in the rhizosphere. In: Swinburne T (ed) Iron, siderophore and plant diseases. Plenum, New York/London, pp 85–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lynch JM (ed) (1990) The rhizosphere. Wiley-Interscience, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  68. Marques APGC, Pires C, Moreira H et al (2010) Assessment of the plant growth promotion abilities of six bacterial isolates using Zea mays as an indicator plant. J Soil Biol Biochem 42:1229–1235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Martinez-Viveros O, Jorquera MA, Crowley DE (2010) Mechanisms and practical considerations involved in plant growth promotion by rhizobacteria. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 10:293–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Maurhofer M, Reimmann C, Sacherer SP et al (1998) Salicylic Acid biosynthetic genes expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain P3 improve the induction of systemic resistance in tobacco against tobacco necrosis virus. Phytopathology 88:678–684PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mendes R et al (2011) Deciphering the rhizosphere microbiome for disease-suppressive bacteria. Science 332:1097–1100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Merckx R, Dijkra A, Hartog AD et al (1987) Production of root-derived material and associated microbial growth in soil at different nutrient levels. Biol Fertil Soils 5:126–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nadeem SM, Zahir ZA, Naveed M et al (2010) Microbial ACC-deaminase; prospects and applications for inducing salt tolerance in plants. Crit Rev Plant Sci 29:360–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Neubauer F, Genser J, Handler R (2000) The Eastern Alps: the result of a two-stage collision process. Osterreichischen Geologischen Gesellschaft 92:117–134Google Scholar
  75. Nieto KF, Frankenberger WT Jr (1989) Biosynthesis of cytokinins by Azotobacter chroococcum. Soil Biol Biochem 21:967–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Okon Y, Itzigsohn R (1995) The development of Azospirillum as a commercial inoculant for improving crop yields. Biotechnol Adv 13(3):415–424PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Pandey A, Sharma E, Palni L (1998) Influence of bacterial inoculation on maize in upland farming systems of the Sikkim Himalaya. Soil Biol Biochem 3:379–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Patil A, Kale A, Ajane G, Sheikh R, Patil S (2017) Plant growth-Promoting Rhizobium: mechanisms and biotechnological prospective. Springer. Hansen AP et al (eds), Rhizobium biology and biotechnology. Soil Biol 50Google Scholar
  79. Petersen DJ, Srinivasan M, Srinivasan M et al (1996) Bacillus polymyxa stimulates increased Rhizobium etli populations and nodulation when co-resident in the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris. FEMS Microbiol Lett 142(2–3):271–276PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Prakash P, Karthikeyan B (2013) Isolation and purification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) from the rhizosphere of Acorus calamus growing soil. Indian Streams Res J 3:1–13Google Scholar
  81. Probanza A, Lucas JA, Acero N (1996) The influence of native rhizobacteria on European alder [Alnus glutinosa (L). (Gaerth)] growth I. Characterization of growth promoting and nitrogen accumulation of inoculated alfalfa. Plant Soil 164:213–219Google Scholar
  82. Rajkumar M, Ae N, Prasad MNV et al (2010) Potential of siderophore-producing bacteria for improving heavy metal phytoextraction. Trends Biotechnol 28:142–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rao VR, Ramakrishnan B, Adhya TK et al (1998) Current status and future prospects of associative nitrogen fixation in rice. World J Micro Biochem 14:621–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Reeve JR, Schadt CW, Carpenter-Boggs L et al (2010) Effects of soil type and farm management on soil ecological functional genes and microbial activities. ISME J 4:1099–1107PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Remans T, Smeets K, Opdenakker K et al (2008) Normalisation of real-time RT-PCR gene expression measurements in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to increased metal concentrations. Planta 227(6):1343–1349PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Riefler M, Novak O, Strnad M et al (2006) Arabidopsis cytokinin receptor mutants reveal functions in shoot growth, leaf senescence, seed size, germination, root development, and cytokinin metabolism. Plant Cell 18:40–54PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rodelas B, Lithgow JK, Wisniewski-Dye F et al (1999) Analysis of quorum-sensing-dependent control of rhizosphere-expressed (rhi) genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. J Bacteriol 181:3816–3823PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Ryu CM, Farag MA, Hu CH (2003) Bacterial volatiles promote growth in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(8):4927–4932PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Salantur A, Ozturk R, Akten S (2006) Growth and yield response of spring wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) to inoculation with rhizobacteria. Plant Soil Environ 52:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sanginga N, Danso SKA, Mulongoy K (1994) Persistence and recovery of introduced Rhizobium ten years after inoculation on Leucaena leucocephala has grown on an Alfisol in southwestern Nigeria. Plant Soil 159(2):199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schippers B (1988) Biological control of pathogens with rhizobacteria. Philos Trans R Soc B318:283–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schippers G, Baker AW, Bakker PAHM (1987) Interactions of deleterious and beneficial rhizosphere microorganisms and the effect on cropping practices. Annu Rev Phytopathol 25:339–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sevilla M, Barris RH, Gunapula N (2001) Comparison of benefit to sugarcane plant growth and 15N2incarporation following inoculation of sterile plants with Acetobacter diazotrophicus wild type and Nif mutant strains. Plant-Microbe Interact 14:358–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sikora RA (1992) Management of the antagonistic potential in agricultural ecosystems for the biological control of plant parasitic nematodes. Annu Rev Phytopathol 30:245–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Smith JC, Bennett S, Evans LM et al (2001) The effects of induced hypogonadism on arterial stiffness, body composition, and metabolic parameters in males with prostate cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:4261–4267PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Somers E, Vanderleyden J, Srinivasan M (2004) Rhizosphere bacterial signaling, a love parade beneath our feet. Crit Rev Microbiol 30:205–240PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Son JS, Sumayo M, Hwang YJ (2014) Screening of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria as an elicitor of systemic resistance against gray leaf spot disease in pepper. Appl Soil Ecol 73:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Spaepen S, Vanderleyden J (2011) Auxin and plant-microbe interactions. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 3Google Scholar
  99. Steidle A, Sigl K, Schuhegger R et al (2001) Visualization of N-acyl homoserine lactone-mediated cell-cell communication between bacteria colonizing the tomato rhizosphere. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:5761–5770PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Subba Rao NS (1993) Biofertilizers in agriculture and forestry. Oxford/IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, p 242Google Scholar
  101. Tarafdar A, Raliya R, Wang WN et al (2013) Green synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticle using Aspergillus tubingensis. Adv Sci Eng Med 5:943–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tchebotar VK, Kang UG, Asis C (1998) The use of GUS-reporter gene to study the effect of Azospirillum-Rhizobium coinoculation on nodulation of white clover. Biol Fertil Soils 27(4):349–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tejera N, Lluch C, Martinez-Toledo MV (2005) Isolation and characterization of Azotobacter and Azospirillum strains from the sugarcane rhizosphere. Plant Soil 270:223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tilak KVBR, Ranganayaji N, Pal KK et al (2005) Diversity of plant growth and soil health supporting bacteria. Curr Sci 89:136–150Google Scholar
  105. Van Loon LC (2007) Plant responses to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Eur J Plant Pathol 199:243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Van Loon LC, Bakker PAHM (2003) Root ecology (eds de Kroon H, Visser WJW). Springer, Berlin, pp 297–330Google Scholar
  107. Van Luijk A (1938) Antagonism of Penicillium species versus Pythium debaryanum. Chronica Bot 4:210–211Google Scholar
  108. Vejan P, Abdullah R, Khadiran T et al (2016) Role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in agricultural sustainability- a review. Molecules 21:573CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Verma JP, Yadav J, Tiwari K et al (2013) Evaluation of plant growth promoting activities of microbial strains and their effect on growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in India. Soil Biol Biochem 70:33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Vijayan R, Palaniappan P, Tongmin SA (2013) Rhizobitoxine enhances nodulation by inhibiting Ethylene synthesis of Bradyrhizobium melanin from Lespedeza species: Validation by homology modeling and molecular docking study. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2:4079–4094Google Scholar
  111. Volpin H, Kapulink Y (1994) Interaction of Azospirillum with beneficial soil microorganisms. In: Okon Y (ed) Azospirillum/plant associations. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 111–118Google Scholar
  112. Wang Y, Brown HN, Crowley DE et al (1993) Evidence for direct utilization of a siderophore, ferrioxamine B, in axenically grown cucumber. Plant Cell Environ 16:579–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wani PA, Khan MS, Zaidi A (2007) Synergistic effect of the inoculation with nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria on the performance of field-grown chickpea. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 170:283–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wei L, Kloepper JW, Tuzun S (1996) Induction of systemic resistance in cucumber against several diseases by plant growth-promoting fungi: lignification and superoxide generation. Eur J Plant Pathol 86(2):221–224Google Scholar
  115. Weller DM (2007) Pseudomonas biocontrol agents of soilborne pathogens: looking back over 30 years. Phytopathology 97:250–256PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Weller DM, Thomashow LS (1994) Current challenges in introducing beneficial microorganisms into the rhizosphere. In: O’Gara F, Dowling D, Boesten N (eds) Molecular ecology of rhizosphere microorganisms: biotechnology and release of GMOs. VCH, New York, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  117. Whipps JM (1990) Carbon utilization. In: Lynch JM (ed) The rhizosphere. Wiley-Interscience, Chichester, pp 59–97Google Scholar
  118. Wu SC, Cao ZH, Li ZG (2005) Effects of biofertilizer containing N-fixer, P and K solubilizers and AM fungi on maize growth: a greenhouse trial. Geoderma 125:155–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Xie H, Pasternak JJ, Glick BR (1996) Isolation and characterization of mutants of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida CR12–2 that overproduce indoleacetic acid. Curr Microbiol 32:67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Xiong K, Fuhrmann JJ (1996) Comparison of rhizobitoxine-induced inhibition of β-cystathionase from different bradyrhizobia and soybean genotypes. Plant Soil 186:53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Yanni YG, Rizk Y, Abd-El FKK (2001) The beneficial plant growth-promoting association of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii with rice roots. Aust J Biol Sci 28:845–870Google Scholar
  122. Zehnder G, Kloepper J, Yao C, Wei G (1997) Induction of systemic resistance in cucumber against cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. J Econ Entomol 90:391–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita Surendra Patil
    • 1
    Email author
  • Surendra Rajaram Patil
    • 2
  • R. Z. Sayyed
    • 3
  1. 1.Lab No. 106 Department of BiotechnologySant Gadge Baba Amravati UniversityAmravatiIndia
  2. 2.College of HorticultureDr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Agriculture UniversityAkolaIndia
  3. 3.Department of MicrobiologyPSGVP Mandal’s Arts, Science, and Commerce CollegeShahadaIndia

Personalised recommendations