Seed Biopriming Through Beneficial Rhizobacteria for Mitigating Soil-Borne and Seed-Borne Diseases

  • Rahul Singh Rajput
  • Prachi Singh
  • Jyoti Singh
  • Shatrupa Ray
  • Anukool Vaishnav
  • Harikesh Bahadur Singh
Part of the Microorganisms for Sustainability book series (MICRO, volume 13)


Seed priming enables seed hydration, thereby activating its metabolism without substantial germination. It also assists in rapid germination as well as enhances resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Soilborne pathogens such as Sclerotium rolfsii, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Rhizoctonia possess major threat to crop production on a global scale. These pathogens cause diseases at the time of seed germination; hence, seed biopriming approach will be advantageous for early crop protection. Further, seed biopriming also providing greater protection by biocontrol increased adherence to seed surface. Thereby biocontrol agents will be establishing prior to pathogen infection. In this context, seed biopriming is a promising technique in comparison to seed treatment, soil application, and foliar spray, thereby providing a significant contribution to sustainable agriculture.


Seed biopriming PGPR Bioprotectant Plant growth promotion Disease control 



RS Rajput and P Singh are grateful to UGC- RET scholarship for providing financial assistance. HB Singh is grateful to DST for providing funding under a grant (BT/PR5990/AGR/5/587/2012).


  1. Abhilash PC, Dubey RK, Tripathi V, Gupta VK, Singh HB (2016) Plant growth-promoting microorganisms for environmental sustainability. Trend Biotechnol 34:847–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abuamsha R, Salman M, Ehlers R (2011) Effect of seed priming with Serratia plymuthica and Pseudomonas chlororaphis to control Leptosphaeria maculans in different oilseed rape cultivars. Eur J Plant Pathol 130:287–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agarwal VK, Sinclair JB (1996) Principles of seed pathology. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahemad M, Kibret M (2014) Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Current perspective. J King Saud Univ Sci 26:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amin M, Teshele J, Tesfay A (2014) Evaluation of bioagents seed treatment against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, in haricot bean anthracnose under field condition. Res Plant Sci 2:22–26Google Scholar
  6. Antoun H, Kloepper JW (2001) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In: Brenner S, Miller JH (eds) Encyclopedia of genetics. Academic, New York, pp 1477–1480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arora NK, Kang SC, Maheshwari DK (2001) Isolation of siderophore producing strains of Rhizobium meliloti and their biocontrol potential against Macrophomina phaseolina that causes charcoal rot of groundnut. Curr Sci 81:673–677Google Scholar
  8. Arora NK, Tewari S, Singh R (2013) Multifaceted plant-associated microbes and their mechanisms diminish the concept of direct and indirect PGPRs. In: Arora NK (ed) Plant-microbe symbiosis: fundamentals and advances. Springer, New Delhi, pp 411–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arumugam K, Ramalingam P, Appu M (2013) Isolation of Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens organism from soil and their treatment against rice pathogens. J Microbiol Biotech Res 3:77–81Google Scholar
  10. Avis TJ, Gravel V, Antoun H, Tweddell RJ (2008) Multi faceted beneficial effects of rhizosphere microorganisms on plant health and productivity. Soil Biol Biochem 40:1733–1740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Banerjee MR, Yesmin L, Vessey JK (2006) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers and biopesticides. In Rai MK(ed) Food products Press, Binghamton, pp 137–181Google Scholar
  12. Bender CL, Rangaswamy V, Loper J (1999) Polyketide production by plant-associated pseudomonads. Annu Rev Phytopathol 37:175–196PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Berg G (2009) Plant-microbe interactions promoting plant growth and health: perspectives for controlled use of microorganisms in agriculture. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 84:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhattacharyya PN, Jha DK (2012) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:1327–1350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bisen K, Keswani C, Mishra S, Saxena A, Rakshit A, Singh HB (2015) Unrealized potential of seed biopriming for versatile agriculture. In: Rakshit A, Singh HB, Sen A (eds) Nutrient use efficiency: from basics to advances. Springer, New Delhi, pp 193–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Borgen A, Davanlou M (2001) Biological control of common bunt (Tilletia tritici). J Crop Prod 3:157–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Braun-Kiewnick A, Jacobsen BJ, Sands DC (2000) Biological control of Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae, the causal agent of basal kernel blight of barley, by antagonistic Pantoea agglomerans. Phytopathology 90:368–375PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Bressan W (2003) Biological control of maize seed pathogenic fungi by use of actinomycetes. Biocontrol 48:233–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Callan NW, Mathre DE, Miller JB (1991) Field performance of sweet corn seed bio-primed and coated with Pseudomonas fluorescens AB254. Hortscience 26:1163–1165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chahal SS (2012) Dr. Norman E Borlaug Memorial Lecture: Indian agriculture: Challenges and opportunities in post-Borlaug era. J Mycol Plant Pathol 42:48–55Google Scholar
  21. Chern LL, Lin HC, Chang CT, Ko WH (2014) Activation of systemic resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in rice by substances produced by Fusarium solani isolated from Soil. J Phytopathol 162:434–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chet I, Ordentlich A, Shapira R, Oppenheim A (1990) Mechanism of bio- control of soilborne plant pathogens by rhizobacteria. Plant Soil 129:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chet I, Borak Z, Oppenheim A (1993) Genetic engineering of microorganisms for improved biocontrol activity. Biotechnology 27:211–235Google Scholar
  24. Compant S, Reiter B, Sessitsch A, Nowak J, Clément C (2005) Endophytic colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by plant growth-promoting bacterium Burkholderia sp. strain 45. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:1685–1693PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davies PJ (2010) The plant hormones: their nature, occurrence, and functions. In: Davies PJ (ed) Plant hormones. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. de Garcia Salamone IE, Hynes RK, Nelson LM (2005) Role of cytokinins in plant growth promotion by rhizosphere bacteria. In: Siddiqui ZA (ed) PGPR: biocontrol and biofertilization. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 173–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Souza JT, Weller DM, Raaijmakers JM (2003) Frequency, diversity and activity of 2, 4-diacetyl phloroglucinol producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. in Dutch take-all decline soils. Phytopathology 93:54–63PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Dobbelaere S, Vanderleyden J, Okon Y (2003) Plant growth promoting effects of diazotrophs in the rhizosphere. Crit Rev Plant Sci 22:107–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Doornbos RF, Van Loon LC, Peter AHM, Bakker A (2012) Impact of root exudates and plant defense signaling on bacterial communities in the rhizosphere. Rev Sustain Dev 32:227–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Etesami H, Alikhani HA (2016) Suppression of the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, seed-borne rice(Oryza sativa L.) endophytic bacterium. Arch Agron Soil 15:1–14Google Scholar
  31. Fravel DR (2005) Commercialization and implementation of biocontrol. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43:337–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Giorgio A, Cantore PL, Shanmugaiah V, Lamorte D, Iacobellis NS (2016) Rhizobacteria isolated from the common bean in southern Italy as potential biocontrol agents against common bacterial blight. Eur J Plant Pathol 144:297–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Glick BR (2012) Plant growth-promoting bacteria: mechanisms and applications. Scientifca (Cairo) 2012:963401Google Scholar
  34. Glick BR, Todorovic B, Czarny J, Cheng Z, Duan J (2007) Promotion of plant growth by bacterial ACC deaminase. Crit Rev Plant Sci 26:227–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Graham PH, Vance CP (2003) Legumes: importance and constraints to greater use. Plant Physiol 131:872–877PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gray EJ, Smith DL (2005) Intracellular and extracellular PGPR: Commonalities and distinctions in the plant-bacterium signaling processes. Soil Biol Biochem 37:395–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gupta G, Parihar SS, Ahirwar NK, Snehi SK, Singh V (2015) Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR): current and future prospects for development of sustainable agriculture. J Microb Biochem Technol 7:096–102Google Scholar
  38. Harman GE, Taylor AG (1988) Improved seedling performance by integration of biological control agents at favorable pH levels with solid matrix priming. Phytopathol 78:520–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hastuti RD, Lestari Y, Suwanto A, Saraswati R (2012) Endophytic Streptomyces spp. as biocontrol agents of rice bacterial leaf blight pathogen (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae). Hayati J Biosci 19:155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hayat R, Ali S, Amara U, Khalid R, Ahmed I (2010) Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review. Ann Microbiol 60:579–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hussain S, Ghaffar A, Aslam M (1990) Biological control of Macrophomina phaseolina charcoal rot of sunflower and mung bean. J Phytopathol 130:157–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jain S, Vaishnav A, Kumari S, Varma A, Tuteja N, Choudhary DK (2017) Chitinolytic Bacillus-mediated induction of jasmonic acid and defense-related proteins in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) plant against Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. J Plant Growth Regul 36(1):200–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ji GH, Wei LF, He YQ, Wu YP, Bai XH (2008) Biological control of rice bacterial blight by Lysobacter antibiotics strain 13-1. Biol Control 45:288–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Joe MM, Islam MR, Karthikeyan B, Bradeepa K, Sivakumaar PK, Sa T (2012) Resistance responses of rice to rice blast fungus after seed treatment with the endophytic Achromobacter xylosoxidans AUM54 strains. Crop Prot 42:141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Johnsson L, Hökeberg M, Gerhardson B (1998) Performance of the Pseudomonas chlororaphis biocontrol agent MA 342 against cereal seed-borne diseases in field experiments. Eur J Plant Pathol 104:701–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Joshi M, Shrivastava R, Sharma AK, Prakash A (2012) Screening of resistant verities and antagonistic Fusarium oxysporum for biocontrol of Fusarium Wilt of Chilli. Plant Pathol Microbiol 3:134Google Scholar
  47. Kang BG, Kim WT, Yun HS, Chang SC (2010) Use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to control stress responses of plant roots. Plant Biotechnol Rep 4:179–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Keel C, Schnider U, Maurhofer M, Voisard C, Laville J, Burger U, Wirth- ner P, Haas D, Defago G (1992) Suppression of root diseases by Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0: the importance of the bacterial secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetyl phloroglucinol. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 5:4–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Khan MR, Fischer S, Egan D, Doohan FM (2006) Biological control of Fusarium seedling blight disease of wheat and barley. Phytopathology 96:386–394PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Khan MS, Zaidi A, Ahemad M, Oves M, Wani PA (2010) Plant growth promotion by phosphate solubilizing fungi - current perspective. Arch Agron Soil Sci 56:73–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kildea S, Ransbotyn V, Khan MR, Fagan B, Leonard G, Mullins E, Doohan FM (2008) Bacillus megaterium shows potential for the biocontrol of Septoria tritici blotch of wheat. Biol Control 47:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kloepper JW, Lifshitz R, Zablotowicz RM (1989) Free-living bacterial inocula for enhancing crop productivity. Trends Biotechnol 7:39–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Knudsen IM, Hockenhull J, Jensen DF (1995) Biocontrol of seedling diseases of barley and wheat caused by Fusarium culmorum and Bipolaris sorokiniana: effects of selected fungal antagonists on growth and yield components. Plant Pathol 44:467–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Koster M, van de Vosenberg J, Leong J, Weisbeek PJ (1993) Identification and characterization of the pup gene encoding an inducible ferric pseudo- actin receptor of Pseudomonas putidaWCS358. Mol Microbiol 8:591–601PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Kuffner M, Puschenreiter M, Wieshammer G, Gorfer M, Sessitsch A (2008) Rhizosphere bacteria affect growth and metal uptake of heavy metal accumulating willows. Plant Soil 304:35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lanteigne C, Gadkar VJ, Wallon T, Novinscak A, Filion M (2012) Production of DAPG and HCN by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 contributes to the biological control of bacterial canker of tomato. Phytopathology 102:967–973PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Latha P, Anand T, Ragupathi N, Prakasam V, Samiyappan R (2009) Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and induction of systemic resistance in tomato plants by mixtures of PGPR strains and Zimmu leaf extract against Alternaria solani. Biol Control 50:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Leong J (1986) Siderophores: their biochemistry and possible role in the biocontrol of plant pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 24:187–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Levenfors JP, Eberhard TH, Levenfors JJ, Gerhardson B, Hokeberg M (2008) Biological control of snow mould (Microdochium nivale) in winter cereals by Pseudomonas brassicacearum MA250. Biocontrol 53:651–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Li Q, Jiang Y, Ning P, Zheng L, Huang J, Li G, Jiang D, Hsiang T (2011) Suppression of Magnaporthe oryzae by culture filtrates of Streptomyces globisporus JK-1. Biol Control 58:139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Liu D, Lian B, Dong H (2012) Isolation of Paenibacillus sp. and assessment of its potential for enhancing mineral weathering. Geomicrobiol J 29:413–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McDonald MB (1999) Seed deterioration: physiology, repair, and assessment. Seed Sci Technol 27:177–237Google Scholar
  63. Mehnaz S (2013) Secondary metabolites of Pseudomonasaurantiaca and their role in plant growth promotion. In: Arora NK (ed) Plant-microbe symbiosis: fundamentals and advances. Springer, New Delhi, pp 373–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Minuto A, Spadaro D, Garibaldi A, Gullino ML (2006) Control of soilborne pathogens of tomato using a commercial formulation of Streptomyces griseoviridis and solarization. Crop Prot 25:468–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Murunde R, Wainwright H (2018) Bio-priming to improve the seed germination, emergence and seedling growth of kale, carrot, and onions. Glob J Agric Res 6:26–34Google Scholar
  66. Naznin HA, Kimura M, Miyazawa M, Hyakumachi M (2012) Analysis of volatile organic compounds emitted by plant growth-promoting fungus Phoma sp. GS8-3 for growth promotion effects on tobacco. Microbe Environ 28:42–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nelson EB (2004) Microbial dynamics and interactions in the spermosphere. Annu Rev Phytopathol 42:271–309PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Nion YA, Toyota K (2015) Recent trends in control methods for bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Microbes Environ 30:1–11PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pandey P, Maheshwari DK (2007) Two sp. microbial consortium for growth promotion of Cajanus cajan. Curr Sci 92:1137–1142Google Scholar
  70. Pandey AK, Burlakoti RR, Kenyon L, Nair RM (2018) Perspectives and challenges for sustainable management of fungal diseases of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata: a review. Front Environ Sci 6:53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pane C, Villecco D, Campanile F, Zaccardelli M (2012) Novel strains of Bacillus, isolated from compost and compost-amended soils, as biological control agents against soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi. Biocontrol Sci Technol 22:1373–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Papavizas GC (1984) Soilborne plant pathogens: new opportunities for biological control. In: Proceedings British crop protection conference-pests and disease, pp 371–378Google Scholar
  73. Parmar P, Sindhu SS (2013) Potassium solubilization by rhizosphere bacteria: influence of nutritional and environmental conditions. J Microbiol Res 3:25–31Google Scholar
  74. Podile AR, Kishore GK (2006) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. In: Gnanamanickam SS (ed) Plant-associated bacteria. Springer, Doredrecht, pp 195–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Raaijmakers JM, Leeman M, van Oorschot MMP, van der Sluis I, Schip- pers B, Bakker PAHM (1995) Dose-response relationships in biological control of Fusarium wilt of radish by Pseudomonas spp. Phytopathology 85:1075–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rangarajan S, Saleena LM, Vasudevan P, Nair S (2003) Biological suppression of rice diseases by Pseudomonas spp. under saline soil conditions. Plant Soil 251:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rani GD (2008) An overview of soil borne phytopathogens. In: Naik MK, Rani GD (eds) Advances in soil borne plant diseases. New India Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 1–31Google Scholar
  78. Ray S, Singh S, Sarma BK, Singh HB (2016) Endophytic Alcaligenes isolated from horticultural and medicinal crops promotes growth in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). J Plant Growth Reg 35:401–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ray K, Sen K, Ghosh PP, Barman AR, Mandal R, De Roy M, Dutta S (2017) Dynamics of Sclerotium rolfsii as influenced by different crop rhizosphere and microbial community. J Appl Nat Sci 9(3):1544–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Recep K, Fikrettin S, Erkol D, Cafer E (2009) Biological control of the potato dry rot caused by Fusarium species using PGPR strains. Biol Control 50:194–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Reed SC, Cleveland CC, Townsend AR (2011) Functional ecology of free-living nitrogen fixation: a contemporary perspective. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 42:489–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sacherer P, Défago G, Haas D (1994) Extracellular protease and phospholipase C is controlled by the global regulatory gene gacA in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. FEMS Microbiol Lett 116:155–160PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Sallam NM (2011) Biological control of common blight of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) caused by Xanthomonas xonopodis pv. phaseoli by using the bacterium Rahnella aquatilis. Arch Phytopathol Plant Protect 44:1966–1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Shilev S (2013) Soil rhizobacteria regulating the uptake of nutrients and undesirable elements by plants. In: Arora NK (ed) plant-microbe symbiosis: fundamentals and advances. Springer, New Delhi, pp 147–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Singh HB (2016) Seed biopriming: a comprehensive approach towards agricultural sustainability. Indian Phytopathol 69:203–209Google Scholar
  86. Singh D, Maheshwari V (2001) Biological seed treatment for the control of loose smut of wheat. Indian Phytopathol 54(4):457–460Google Scholar
  87. Singh V, Upadhyay RS, Sarma BK, Singh HB (2016) Seed bio-priming with Trichoderma asperellum effectively modulate plant growth promotion in pea. Int J Agric Environ Biotechnol 9:361–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Slimene IB, Tabbene O, Gharbi D, Mnasri B, Schmitter JM, Urdaci MC, Limam F (2015) Isolation of a chitinolytic Bacillus licheniformis S213 strain exerting a biological control against Phoma medicaginis infection. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 175:3494–3506PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Smith JA, Métraux JP (1991) Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae induces systemic resistance to Pyricularia oryzae in rice. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 39:451–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Spadaro D, Gullino ML (2005) Improving the efficacy of biocontrol agents against soilborne pathogens. Crop Prot 24(7):601–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Spaepen S, Vanderleyden J (2011) Auxin and plant-microbe interactions. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 3:a001438PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Spago FR, Mauro CI, Oliveira AG, Beranger JPO, Cely MVT, Stanganelli MM, Simionato AS, San Martin JAB, Andrade CGTJ, Mello JCP, Andrade G (2014) Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces secondary metabolites that have biological activity against plant pathogenic Xanthomonas species. Crop Prot 62:46–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sujatha N, Ammani K (2013) Siderophore production by the isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonads. Int J Curr Res Rev 5:1–7Google Scholar
  94. Tao A, Pang F, Huang S, Yu G, Li B, Wang T (2014) Characterization of endophytic Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from wheat plants as biocontrol agents against wheat flag smut. Biocontrol Sci Technol 24:901–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Udayashankar AC, Nayaka SC, Reddy MS, Srinivas C (2011) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria mediate induced systemic resistance in rice against bacterial leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Biol Control 59:114–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Velusamy P, Immanuel JE, Gnanamanickam SS, Thomashow L (2006) Biological control of rice bacterial blight by plant-associated bacteria producing 2, 4-diacetyl phloroglucinol. Can J Microbiol 52:56–65PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Vessey JK (2003) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant Soil 255:571–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vidhyasekaran P, Kamala N, Ramanathan A, Rajappan K, Paranidharan V, Velazhahan R (2001) Induction of systemic resistance by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf1 against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice leaves. Phytoparasitica 29:155–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wadhwa K, Beniwal MS, Karwasara SS, Behl RK, Narula N (2011) Biological control of flag smut disease in wheat (T. aestivum) under field conditions using bioinoculants. J Genet Evol 4:15–21Google Scholar
  100. Weller DM (2007) Pseudomonas biocontrol agents of soilborne pathogens: looking back over 30 years. Phytopathology 97:250–256PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zahran HH (2001) Rhizobia from wild legumes: diversity, taxonomy, ecology, nitrogen fixation and biotechnology. J Biotechnol 91:143–153PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zhang RS, Liu YF, Chen ZY (2011) Screening, evaluation and utilization of antagonistic bacteria against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola. Chin J Biol Control 4:1–14.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rahul Singh Rajput
    • 1
  • Prachi Singh
    • 1
  • Jyoti Singh
    • 2
  • Shatrupa Ray
    • 2
  • Anukool Vaishnav
    • 1
  • Harikesh Bahadur Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mycology and Plant PathologyInstitute of Agricultural Sciences, Varanasi, Banaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Botany, Institute of SciencesBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations