Food Allergy pp 195-216 | Cite as

Risk Assessment and Control Management of Food Allergens

  • Linglin Fu
  • Bobby J. Cherayil
  • Haining Shi
  • Yanbo Wang
  • Yang Zhu


With the improvement of people’s living standards, the labeling management of allergens in food is increasingly valued by people of all countries. However, compared with the United States, the European Union, and several other countries and organizations, most third world countries still have a large gap in the management level of allergen labels in food. This chapter summarizes the management of food allergens labeling, the revision process of labeling instructions, and the management of cross-contamination by major countries and organizations around the world. In addition, we compare the status of food allergens labeling management in the EU and China as a typical representative of third world countries and summarize the shortcomings in the Chinese management of food allergens, mainly including imperfect regulations and standards for food allergen labeling, lack of risk assessment of food allergens, no cross-contamination regulations, and low consumer awareness on food allergens.


  1. Alldrick A (2011) Assessment of risk from food allergens cross-contamination. Clin Transl Allergy 1:S40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen KJ et al (2014) Precautionary labelling of foods for allergen content: are we ready for a global framework? World Allergy Organ J 7:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldus K, Werronen K, Deibel V (2008) Adverse reactions to allergens: the importance of labeling and cross-contamination control. Foodsafety MagGoogle Scholar
  4. Beijing_Municipal_Bureau_of_Quality_and_Technical_Supervision (2008) Olympic food safety food allergen label DB11/Z 521—2008. China Standard Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyce JA et al (2011) Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: summary of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel report. Nutrition 27:253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bronowicka A, Laechelin J, Pischetsrieder M, Franke P (2006) New aspects of the food hygiene legislation: general regulation for food hygiene (EC) No. 852/2004 – a new regulation for food production? Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau 102:185–191Google Scholar
  7. China_National_Standardization_Administration (2009) GB/T23779–2009 allergen ingredients in prepackaged foods. China Standard Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  8. Crevel RWR, Cochrane SA (2014) Food safety assurance systems: management of allergens in food industry. Encycl Food Saf:254–261Google Scholar
  9. European_Food_Safety_Authority (2005) Opinion of the scientific panel on dietetic products, nutrition and allergies on a request from the commission related to the evaluation of lupin for labeling purposes. EFSA J 303:1–11Google Scholar
  10. European_Food_Safety_Authority (2007) Opinion of the scientific panel on dietetic products, nutrition and allergies on a request from the Commission related to the safety of Allanblackia seed oil for use in yellow fat and cream based spreads. Eur Food Saf Authority J 5:n/a–n/aGoogle Scholar
  11. Falci BKJ, Gombas KL, Elliot EL (2001) Food allergen awareness: an FDA priority. Food Saf MagGoogle Scholar
  12. Fenton M (2011) Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States. Clin Transl Allergy 1:S10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Food_Standards_Australia_and_New_Zealand 2016 Food recall statistics (between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2015) [EB/OL].
  14. Gendel SM (2012) Comparison of international food allergen labeling regulations. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 63:279–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gendel SM, Khan N, Yajnik M (2013) A survey of food allergen control practices in the U.S. food industry. J Food Prot 76:302–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. General_Accounting OUS (2001) Food safety: overview of federal and state expendituresGoogle Scholar
  17. Gojkovic V, Marjanovicbalaban Z, Vukic M, Grujić R, Novaković B (2015) Allergens management system in the food production. J Hyg Eng Des 12:76–84Google Scholar
  18. Grunert KG, Fernándezcelemín L, Wills JM, Nureeva L (2010) Use and understanding of nutrition information on food labels in six European countries. J Public Health 18:261–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guangzhou_Quality_and_Technical_Supervision_Bureau (2009) Asian games food safety food allergen label DBJ440100/T 28—2009. China Standard Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  20. Guo F, Zhang ZJ, Chen MH, Hui-Shang LI (2010) Application of the HACCP system in Beijing Olympic games and its enlightenment on food safety management in China. Food Nutr China 5:4–8Google Scholar
  21. Guthman J (2010) The Polanyian way? Voluntary food labels as neoliberal governance. Antipode 39:456–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hall JC (2013) Identification of allergens in food [EB/OL]. [2015-10-12]
  23. Høst A et al (2000) Dietary products used in infants for treatment and prevention of food allergy. Joint statement of the European Society for Paediatric Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI) Committee on Hypoallergenic Formulas and the European Society for Paediatric. Arch Dis Child 83:87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Koeberl M et al (2017) Food allergen Management in Australia. J AOAC Int 101:60–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Korea_Food_and_Drug_Safety_Agency (2015) Notice 2015-20 [EB/OL].
  26. Li M, Ji K, Liu Z, Wang C, Chen J, Zhan Z, Wu X (2009) Food allergen labeling during the 2008 Beijing olympics and paralympics and beyond. Trends Food Sci Technol 20:100–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li ZD, Sun XH, Zhang ZS (2015) Research of China food safety regulation’s efficiency evaluation based on super efficiency. Spec Zone Econ:227–229Google Scholar
  28. Liu XS, Zhang H, Long-Fei LI (2015) A study on Australia New Zealand food standards. J Guangdong Ocean Univ 3:34–52Google Scholar
  29. MOHC_the_Minister_of_Health_of_the_People’s_Republic_of_China (2011) GB7718-2011 national food safety standards for prepackaged food labels. China standard press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  30. National_Center_for_Food_Safety_Risk_Assessment (2013) Risk Monitoring [EB/OL]. 27
  31. Röder M et al (2010) Allergen sanitation in the food industry: a systematic industrial scale approach to reduce hazelnut cross-contamination of cookies. J Food Prot 73:1671–1679. 1679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rosini, Daniele M (2002) Constitution of the World Health Organization. Bull World Health Organ 80:983–984Google Scholar
  33. Ross MM, Jackson L (2013) Summary of the ACS symposium on advances in food allergen detection. J Agric Food Chem 61:5621–5623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rothman RL et al (2006) Patient understanding of food labels: the role of literacy and numeracy. Am J Prev Med 31:391–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sakellariou A, Sinaniotis A, Damianidou L, Papadopoulos NG, Vassilopoulou E (2010) Food allergen labelling and consumer confusion. Allergy 65:534–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Silas S, Fitzsimmons CM, Jones FM, Pinot de Moira A, Wawrzyniak J, Tukahebwa EM, Dunne DW (2014) Human IgE responses to different splice variants of Schistosoma mansoni tropomyosin: associations with immunity. Int J Parasitol 44:381–390. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Simons E, Weiss CC, Furlong TJ, Sicherer SH (2005) Impact of ingredient labeling practices on food allergic consumers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 115:S243–S243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Simons FER et al (2012) World allergy organization guidelines for the assessment and Management of Anaphylaxis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 12:389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Soares Weiser K et al (2014) The diagnosis of food allergy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Allergy 69:62–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Takaya S (2009) Outline of revision of the food sanitation law. J Food Hyg Soc Jpn 36:674–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. The_European_Parliament_and_of_the_Council (2003) Directive 2003/89/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending directive 2000/13/EC as regards indication of the ingredients present in foodstuffs. Off J Eur Union 308:15–18Google Scholar
  42. The_European_Parliament_and_of_the_Council (2005a) Commission Directive 2005/26/EC of 21 March 2005 establishing a list of food ingredients or substances provisionally excluded from AnnexIIIa of Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. Off J Eur Union L75:33Google Scholar
  43. The_European_Parliament_and_of_the_Council (2005b) Commission Directive 2005/63/EC of 3 October 2005 correcting Directive 2005 /26 /EC concerning the list of food ingredients or substances provisionally excluded from Annex IIIa of Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. Off J Eur Union L258:3Google Scholar
  44. The_European_Parliament_and_of_the_Council (2006) Commission Directive 2006/142/EC of 22 December 2006 amending Annex IIIa of Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council listing the ingredients which must under all circumstances appear on the labeling of foodstuffs. Off J Eur Union L368:110Google Scholar
  45. The_European_Parliament_and_of_the_Council (2007) Commission Directive 2007/68/EC of 27 November 2007 amending Annex IIIa to Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards certain food ingredients. Off J Eur Union L310:11Google Scholar
  46. The_European_Parliament_and_of_the_Council (2009) Commission Regulation(EC)No 41/2009 of 20 January 2009 concerning the composition and labeling of foodstuffs suitable for people intolerant to gluten. Off J Eur Union L16:3Google Scholar
  47. The_European_Parliament_and_of_the_Council (2011) Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011on the provision of food information to consumers, amending Regulations (EC) No 1924/2006 and (EC) No 1925/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Commission Directive 87/250/EEC, Council Directive 90/496/EEC, Commission Directive 1999/10/EC, Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Directives 2002/67/EC and 2008/5/EC and Commission Regulation (EC) No 608/2004. Off J Eur Union L304:18Google Scholar
  48. The_European_Parliament_and_the_Council (2000) Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the labeling, presentation and advertising of foodstuffs. Off J Eur Union L109:29Google Scholar
  49. Vierk KA, Koehler KM, Fein SB, Street DA (2007) Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in American adults and use of food labels. J Allergy Clin Immunol 119:1504–1510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Villalba A, Ruzicka K (2014) Food allergen labeling and HACCP control for the seafood industry: undeclared food allergens and their impact on U. S. Consumers. Virginia Coop Ext 2:54–62Google Scholar
  51. Wang F, Zhou W, Cai J (2014a) An institutional study on Japan's food safety: focusing on the legal and administrative system. Policy Sci 22:23–37Google Scholar
  52. Wang MJ, Jiang-Hua LI, Guo LY, Jia-Jie LI, Ran XU, Zheng FT, Wang ZG (2014b) Food allergen labeling management: a review of the European experience and its inspiration for China. Food Sci 35:261–265Google Scholar
  53. Wei XQ, Xie L, Chen WR, Zhi-Yong LI, Chen ZY, Wang JT (2011) Reviewed of allergen-cross-contamination management guides of Chinese major trading nations or regions. Food Sci TechnolGoogle Scholar
  54. West_Publishing (2015) United States CodeGoogle Scholar
  55. Winger R (2003) Australia New Zealand food standards code. Food Control 14:355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Xie L, Xiang D, Wei X, Xu Y, Li Z, Liu J (2011) Food allergen labeling measures in main trading partner countries and its inspiration for China. Chin J Food HygGoogle Scholar
  57. Zou L, Xin LI, Tong P, Gao JY, Chen HB (2016) Regulations of food allergen labeling from the European Union, Australia and New Zealand and its enlightenment on China. Sci Technol Food IndGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linglin Fu
    • 1
  • Bobby J. Cherayil
    • 2
  • Haining Shi
    • 2
  • Yanbo Wang
    • 1
  • Yang Zhu
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Food Science and BiotechnologyZhejiang Gongshang UniversityHanghzouChina
  2. 2.Mucosal Immunology and Biology ResearchHarvard Medical SchoolCharlestownUSA
  3. 3.Bioprocess Engineering Group, Agrotechnology and Food SciencesWageningen University and ResearchWageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations