Advertisement

Opportunistic Infections

  • Guiquan Shen
  • Mu-xi Wu
  • Bo Gao
Chapter

Abstract

At present the pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is still one of the most severe health challenges globally. Acknowledging the imaging features of characterizing AIDS-related conditions is vital to diagnosis, therapy, or further work-up.

Keywords

HIV Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Highly active antiretroviral therapy 

References

  1. 1.
    Albarillo F, O’Keefe P. Opportunistic neurologic infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2016;16(1):10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bowen LN, Smith B, Reich D, et al. CNS infections: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Nat Rev Neurol. 2016;12(11):662–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Smith AB, Smirniotopoulos JG, Rushing EJ. From the archives of the AFIP: central nervous system infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2008;28(7):2033–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tan IL, Smith BR, von Geldern G, et al. HIV-associated opportunistic infections of the CNS. Lancet Neurol. 2012;11(7):605–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sarbu N, Shih RY, Jones RV, et al. White matter diseases with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2016;36(5):1426–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gottumukkala RV, Romero JM, Riascos RF, et al. Imaging of the brain in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2014;23(5):275–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Renard T, Daumas-Duport B, Auffray-Calvier E, et al. Cytomegalovirus encephalitis: undescribed diffusion-weighted imaging characteristics. Original aspects of cases extracted from a retrospective study, and from literature review. J Neuroradiol. 2016;43(6):371–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Berger JR, Aksamit AJ, Clifford DB, et al. PML diagnostic criteria: consensus statement from the AAN neuroinfectious disease section. Neurology. 2013;80(15):1430–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Loyse A, Moodley A, Rich P, et al. Neurological, visual, and MRI brain scan findings in 87 south African patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. J Infect. 2015;70(6):668–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tan ZR, Long XY, Li GL, et al. Spectrum of neuroimaging findings in cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompetent patients in China—a series of 18 cases. J Neurol Sci. 2016;368:132–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sarkis RA, Mays M, Isada C, et al. MRI findings in cryptococcal meningitis of the non-HIV population. Neurologist. 2015;19(2):40–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Siddiqui AA, Bashir SH, Ali Shah A, et al. Diagnostic MR imaging features of craniocerebral Aspergillosis of sino-nasal origin in immunocompetent patients. Acta Neurochir. 2006;148(2):155–66; discussion 166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guermazi A, Gluckman E, Tabti B, et al. Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis in bone marrow transplantation recipients: an overview. Eur Radiol. 2003;13(2):377–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Patkar D, Narang J, Yanamandala R, et al. Central nervous system tuberculosis: pathophysiology and imaging findings. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2012;22(4):677–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Akgoz A, Mukundan S, Lee TC. Imaging of rickettsial, spirochetal, and parasitic infections. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2012;22(4):633–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Post MJ, Thurnher MM, Clifford DB, et al. CNS-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the setting of HIV infection, part 1: overview and discussion of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and cryptococcal-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34(7):1297–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Post MJ, Thurnher MM, Clifford DB, et al. CNS-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the setting of HIV infection, part 2: discussion of neuro-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome with and without other pathogens. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34(7):1308–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Guevara-Silva EA, Ramírez-Crescencio MA, Soto-Hernández JL, et al. Central nervous system immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in AIDS: experience of a Mexican neurological centre. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2012;114(7):852–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guiquan Shen
    • 1
  • Mu-xi Wu
    • 1
  • Bo Gao
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyAffiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical UniversityGuiyangChina

Personalised recommendations