Advertisement

Salt Stress Responses and Tolerance in Wheat

  • Neerja Srivastava
Chapter

Abstract

Wheat is produced in 17% of cultivated land throughout the world. It is a most widely grown cereal crop and has more calories and protein than any other crop. Approximately 35% of the world population uses it as staple food. Salt stress is one of the principal limitations in wheat production. The agricultural production in many countries is severely impaired because the world’s total 6% land area, i.e., about 800 million hectares, is contaminated by salt. Many physiological as well as biochemical mechanisms have been developed in plants to survive at high salt concentration. The most effective as well as economical approach to solve the salt problem is to improve wheat adaptation under salt stress and enhance its grain yield particularly in those countries which produce wheat with less resources and facing problem of salt in soil. Various approaches like morphological and physiological testings and genetic and molecular strategies are required to understand the genetic as well as physiological mechanisms of natural differences in salt tolerance of wheat and to obtain methods to investigate the inherent genetic differences, to get new candidate genes for improving salt tolerance in wheat.

Keywords

Wheat Abiotic stress Salt stress Salt tolerance Salt responses 

References

  1. Abd El-Wahed MH, EL Sabagh A, Mohammed H, Ueda A, Saneoka H, Barutçular C (2015) Evaluation of barley productivity and water use efficiency under saline water irrigation in arid region. Int J Agric Crop Sci 8:765–773Google Scholar
  2. Abdelhamid MT, Rady MM, Osman AS, Abdalla MA (2013) Exogenous application of proline alleviates salt-induced oxidative stress in Phaseolus vulgaris plants. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 88:439–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdelkader AF, Aronsson H, Sundqvist C (2007) High salt stress in wheat leaves causes retardation of chlorophyll accumulation due to a limited rate of protochlorophyllide formation. Physiol Planat 130(1):157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Abebe T, Guenzi AC, Martin B, Cushman JC (2003) Tolerance of mannitol-accumulating transgenic wheat to water stress and salinity. Plant Physiol 131(4):1748–1755PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Abedini M (2016) Physiological responses of wheat plant to salinity under different concentrations of Zn. Acta Biol Szeged 60(1):9–16Google Scholar
  6. Agrawal SC, Sharma CP, Sinha BK, Malhotra NK (1964) Soil and plant relationship with reference to trace elements in usar (alkaline) soil of UP. Indian J Soil Sci 12:343–354Google Scholar
  7. Akram M, Hussain M, Akhtar S, Rasul E (2002) Impact of NaCl salinity on yield components of some wheat accessions/varieties. Int J Agric Biol 4:156–158Google Scholar
  8. Aktaş H, Abak K, Öztürk L, Çakmak I (2006) The effect of zinc on growth and shoot concentrations of sodium and potassium in pepper plants under salinity stress. Turk J Agri For 30:407–41226Google Scholar
  9. Alloway BJ (2008) Zinc in soils and crop nutrition. IZA and IFA Publisher, Belgium/Paris, pp 30–50Google Scholar
  10. Alscher RG, Donahue JC, Cramer CL (1997) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidants: relationship in green cells. Physiol Plant 100:224–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Amin AY, Diab AA (2013) QTL mapping of wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) in response to salt stress. Int J Biotechnol Res 3:47–60Google Scholar
  12. Ashraf M (1994) Breeding for salinity tolerance in plants. Crit Rev Plant Sci 13:17–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ashraf M (2002) Exploitation of genetic variation for improvement of salt tolerance in spring wheat. In: Ahmad R, Malik KA (eds) Prospects for saline agriculture. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ashraf M (2004) Some important physiological selection criteria for salt tolerance in plants. Flora 199:361–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ Exp Bot 59:206–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ashraf M, Harris PJC (2004) Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Sci 166:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ashraf M, Khanum A (1997) Relationship between ion accumulation and growth in two spring wheat lines differing in salt tolerance at different growth stages. J Agron Crop Sci 178:39–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ashraf M, McNeilly T (1988) Variability in salt tolerance of nine spring wheat cultivars. J Agron Crop Sci 160:14–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ashraf M, O’Leary JW (1996) Responses of some newly developed salt-tolerant genotypes of spring wheat to salt stress: 1. Yield components and ion distribution. J Agron Crop Sci 176:91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Askari M, Amini F, Jamali F (2015) Effects of zinc on growth, photosynthetic pigments, proline, carbohydrate and protein content of Lycopersicum esculentum under salinity. JPPF 3:45–58Google Scholar
  21. Azadi A, Mardi M, Hervan EM, Mohammadi SA, Moradi F, Tabatabaee MT, Pirseyedi SM, Ebrahimi M, Fayaz F, Kazemi M, Ashkani S, Nakhoda B, Mohammadi-Nejad G (2015) QTL Mapping of yield and yield components under normal and salt-stress conditions in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Mol Biol Report 33:102–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bassi R, Sharma SS (1993) Changes in proline content accompanying the uptake of zinc and copper by Lemna minor. Ann Bot (Lond) 72:151–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Beligni MV, Lamattina L (1999) Nitric oxide counteracts cytotoxic processes mediated by reactive oxygen species in plant tissues. Planta 208:337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Benavides MP, Marconi PL, Gallego SM, Comba ME, Tomaro ML (2000) Relationship between antioxidant defense systems and salt tolerance in Solanum tuberosum. Aust J Plant Physiol 27:273–278Google Scholar
  25. Boyer JS (1965) Effect of osmotic water stress on metabolic rates of cotton plants with open stomata. Plant Physiol 40:229–234PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brini F, Hanin M, Lumbreras V, Irar S, Pagès M, Masmoudi K (2007) Functional characterization of DHN-5, a dehydrin showing a differential phosphorylation pattern in two Tunisian durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) varieties with marked differences in salt and drought tolerance. Plant Sci 172:20–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brown AD, Simpson JR (1972) Water relations of sugar tolerant yeasts: the role intracellular polyols. J Gen Microbiol 72:589–591PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Bryan GJ, Stephenson P, Collins A, Kirby J, Smith JB, Gale MD (1999) Low levels of DNA sequence variation among adapted genotypes of hexaploid wheat. Theor Appl Genet 99(1–2):192–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cai H, Tian S, Liu C, Dong H (2011) Identification of a MYB3R gene involved in drought, salt and cold stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Gene 485:146–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cançado GMA (2011) The importance of genetic diversity to manage abiotic stress. In: Shanker A (ed) Abiotic stress in plants – mechanisms and adaptations. InTech, Rijeka, pp 351–366Google Scholar
  31. Caverzan A, Casassola A, Patussi S (2016) BrammerAntioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress. Genet Mol Biol 39(1):1–6PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chamekh Z, Ayed S, Sahli A, Ayadi S, Hammemi Z, Jallouli S, Trifa Y, Amara H (2017) Effect of salt stress on the flag leaf area and yield components in twenty five durum wheat genotypes (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum). J New Sci 6:3Google Scholar
  33. Chaves MS, Martinelli JA, Wesp-Guterres C, Graichen FAS, Brammer S, Scagliusi SM, Da Silva PR, Wiethölter P, Torres GAM, Lau EY et al (2013) The importance for food security of maintaining rust resistance in wheat. Food Security 5:157–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chawla S, Jain S, Jain V (2013) Salinity induced oxidative stress and antioxidant system in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Plant Biotech Biochem 1:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cheeseman JM (1988) Mechanism of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Physiol 87:547–550PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chhipa BR, Lal P (1995) Na/K ratios as the basis of salt tolerance in wheat. Aust J Agric Res 46:533–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chookhampaeng S (2011) The effect of salt stress on growth, chlorophyll content proline content and antioxidative enzymes of pepper (Capsicum Annuum L.) seedling. Eur J Sci Res 49:103–109Google Scholar
  38. Colmer TD, Flowers TJ, Munns R (2006) Use of wild relatives to improve salt tolerance in wheat. J Exp Bot 57:1059–1078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Crosatti C, Soncini C, Stanca AM, Cattivelli L (1995) The accumulation of a cold-regulated chloroplastic protein is light dependent. Planta 195:458–463Google Scholar
  40. Curtis T, Halford NG (2014) Food security: the challenge of increasing wheat yield and the importance of not compromising food safety. Ann Appl Biol 164:354–372PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dubcovsky J, Santa María G, Epstein E, Luo M-C, Dvořák J (1996) Mapping of the K+/Na+ discrimination locus Kna1 in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 92-92(3–4):448–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dalmia A, Sawhney V (2004) Antioxidant defense mechanism under drought stress in wheat seedlings. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 10:109–114Google Scholar
  43. Das T, Mandavia MK, Mandavia C (2016) Physiological responses and comparison of protein changes in the leaves of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes by 2-d electrophoresis under NaCl salinity stress. Indian J Agric Biochem 29(1):103–107.  https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-4479.2016.00018.6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Datta JK, Nag S, Banerjee A, Mondal NK (2009) Impact of salt stress on five varieties of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under laboratory condition. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 13(3):93–97Google Scholar
  45. Dawood MG, Taieb HAA, Nassarc RMA, Abdelhamida MT, Schmidhalter U (2014) The changes induced in the physiological, biochemical and anatomical characteristics of Vicia faba by the exogenous application of proline under seawater stress. South Afr J Bot 93:54–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Delauney AJ, Verma DPS (1993) Proline biosynthesis and osmoregulation in plants. Plant J 4:215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dionisio-Sese ML, Tobita S (1998) Antioxidant response of rice seedlings to salinity stress. Plant Sci 135:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dvorak J, Ross K (1986) Expression of tolerance of Na+, K+, Mg2+, C and SO4 2+ ions and sea water in the amphiploid of Triticum aestivum–Elytrigia elongata. Crop Sci 26:658–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. EL Sabagh A, Islam MS, Ueda A, Saneoka HBarutçular C (2015a) Increasing reproductive stage tolerance to salinity stress in soybean. Int J Agric Crop Sci 8:738–745Google Scholar
  50. EL Sabagh A, Sorour S, Ueda A, Saneoka H, Barutçular C (2015b) Evaluation of salinity stress effects on seed yield and quality of three soybean cultivars. Azarian J Agric 2(5):138–141Google Scholar
  51. EL Sabagh A, Omar A, Saneoka H, Barutçular C (2015c) Comparative physiological study of soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars under salt stress. YYU J Agr Sci 25(3):269–278Google Scholar
  52. EL Sabagh A, Omar A, Saneoka H, Barutçular C (2015d) Physiological performance of soybean germination and seedling growth under salinity stress. Dicle University Inst Nat Apd Sci J 4(1):6–15Google Scholar
  53. EL Sabagh A, Sorour S, Omar A, Ragab A, Islam MS, Barutçular C, Ueda A Saneoka H (2015e) Alleviation of adverse effects of salt stress on soybean (Glycine max L.) by using osmoprotectants and compost application. Int J Biol Biomol Agril Food Biotech Eng 9:9Google Scholar
  54. El-Hendawy SE, Hu Y, Schmidhalter U (2005) Growth, ion content, gas exchange, and water relations of wheat genotypes differing in salt tolerances. Aust J Agric Res 56:123–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. El-Shabrawi H, Kumar B, Kaul T, Reddy MK, Singla-Pareek SL, Sopory SK (2010) Redox homeostasis, antioxidant defense, and methylglyoxal detoxification as markers for salt tolerance in Pokkali rice. Protoplasma 245:85–96PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Erdal S, Aydin M, Genisel M, Taspinar MS, Dumlupinar R, Kaya O, Gorcek Z (2011) Effect of salicylic acid on wheat salt sensitivity. Afr J Biotechnol 10:5713–5718Google Scholar
  57. FAO and ITPS (2015) Status of the World’s Soil Resources (SWSR). Main Report, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  58. FAO: FAO land and plant nutrition management service. Available online at://www.fao.org/ag/agl/agll/spush/. Accessed 25 Apr 2008
  59. Farhoudi R, Modhej A, Afrous A (2015) Effect of salt stress on physiological and morphological parameters of rapeseed cultivars. J Sci Res Dev 2:111–117Google Scholar
  60. Flowers TJ, Troke PF, Yeo AR (1977) The mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 28(1):89–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Flowers TJ, Yeo AR (1992) Solute transport in plants. Blackie, Glasgow, p 176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Fogle VW, Munns DN (1973) Effect of salinity on the time course of wheat seedlings growth. Plant Physiol 51:987–988PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fougère F, Le Rudulier D, Streeter JG (1991) Effects of salt stress on amino acid, organic acid, and carbohydrate composition of roots, bacteroids, and cytosol of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Plant Physiol 96:1228–1236PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Forster BP, Miller TE, Law CN (1988) Salt tolerance of two wheat Agropyron junceum disomic addition lines. Genome 30:559–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Foyer CH, Noctor G (2005) Redox homeostasis and antioxidant signaling: a metabolic interface between stress perception and physiological responses. Plant Cell 17:1866–1875PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Greenway H, Munns R (1980) Mechanisms of salt tolerance in nonhalophytes. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 31(1):149–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gilroy S, Suzuki N, Miller G, Choi WG, Toyota M, Devireddy AR, Mittler R (2014) A tidal wave of signals: calcium and ROS at the forefront of rapid systemic signaling. Trends Plant Sci 19:623–630PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Glenn EP, Brown JJ, Blumwald E (1999) Salt tolerance and crop potential of halophytes. Crit Rev Plant Sci 18:227–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gorham J (1995) Mechanism of salt tolerance of halophytes. In: ChoukrAllah R, Malcolm CV, Hamdy A (eds) Halophytes and biosaline agriculture. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 207–223Google Scholar
  70. Gorham J, Mcdonnel E, Budrewicz E, Wyn Jones RG (1985) Salt tolerance in the Triticeae: growth and solute accumulation in leaves of Thinopyrum bessarabicum. J Exp Bot 36:1021–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gorham J, Hardy C, Wyn Jones RG, Joppa LR, Law CN (1987) Chromosomal location of a K/Na discrimination character in the D genome of wheat. Theor Appl Genet 74:584–588PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gorham J, Wyn Jones RG, Bristol A (1990) Partial characterization of the trait for enhanced K+-Na+ discrimination in the D genome of wheat. Planta 180:590–597PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gossett DR, Milhollon EP, Lucas MC (1994) Antioxidant response to NaCl stress in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivar of cotton. Crop Sci 34:706–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Greenway H, Gibbs J (2003) Maintenance of anoxia tolerance in plants. II. Energy requirements for maintenance and energy distribution to essential processes. Funct Plant Biol 30:999–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hare PD, Cress WA (1997) Metabolic implications of stress-induced proline accumulation in plants. Plant Growth Regul 21:79–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hare PD, Cress WA, Van Staden J (1998) Dissecting the roles of osmolyte accumulation during stress. Plant Cell Environ 21:535–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Harinasut P, Poonsopa D, Roengmongkol K, Charoensataporn R (2003) Salinity effects on antioxidant enzymes in mulberry cultivars. Sci Asia 29:109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hasan MK, EL Sabagh A, Sikdar I, Alam MJ, Ratnasekera D, Barutcular C, Abdelaal K, Islam MS (2017) Comparative adaptable agronomic traits of blackgram and mungbean for saline lands. Plant Arch 17(1):589–593Google Scholar
  79. Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2011) Selenium pretreatment upregulates the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system and confers enhanced tolerance to drought stress in rapeseed seedlings. Biol Trace Elem Res 143(3):1758–1776PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2010) Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of nitric oxide induced abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Am J Plant Physiol 5:295–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2011) Nitric oxide modulates antioxidant defense and the methylglyoxal detoxification system and reduces salinity-induced damage of wheat seedlings. Plant Biotechnol Rep 5:353–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA, Zhu JK, Bohnert HJ (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol l51:463–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hassan N, Hasan MK, Shaddam MO, Islam MS, Barutçular C, EL Sabagh A (2018) Responses of maize varieties to salt stress in relation to germination and seedling growth. Int Lett Nat Sci 69:1–11Google Scholar
  84. Hayat S, Hayat Q, Alyemeni MN, Wani AS, Pichtel J, Ahmad A (2012) Role of proline under changing environments: a review. Plant Signal Behav 11:1456–1466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. He XJ, Mu RL, Cao WH, Zhang ZG, Zhang JS, Chen SY (2005) AtNAC2 a transcription factor downstream of ethylene and auxin signaling pathways, is involved in salt stress response and lateral root development. Plant J 44:903–916PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Hollington PA (2000) Technological breakthroughs in screening/breeding wheat varieties for salt tolerance. In: Gupta SK, Sharma SK, Tyagi NK (eds) Proceedings of the national conference ‘salinity management in agriculture’. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, pp 273–289Google Scholar
  87. Hollington PA, Royo A, Miller TE, Quarrie SA, Mahmood A, Aragüés R (1994) The use of doubled haploid breeding techniques to develop wheat varieties for saline areas. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Congress of the European Society of Agronomy. Elsevier, Wageningen, pp 156–157Google Scholar
  88. Hong SW, Jon JH, Kwak JM, Nam HG (1997) Identification of a receptor-like protein kinase gene rapidly induced by abscisic acid, dehydration, high salt, and cold treatments in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol 113:1203–1212PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hossain MA, Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2010) Up-regulation of antioxidant and glyoxalase systems by exogenous glycinebetaine and proline in mung bean confer tolerance to cadmium stress. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 26:259–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hurkman WJ (1992) Effect of salt stress on gene expression: a review. Plant Soil 146:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hussain B, Lucas SJ, Ozturk L, Budak H (2017) Mapping QTLs conferring salt tolerance and micronutrient concentrations at seedling stagein wheat. Sci Rep 7:15662.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15726-6 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Im CH, Kim MK, Kim KH, Cho SJ, Lee JJ, Joung WK et al (2014) Breeding of Pleurotus eryngii with a high temperature tolerance trait. J Mushrooms 12:187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Innocenti G, Pucciariello C, Gleuher ML, Hopkins J, de Stefano M, Delledonne M, Puppo A, Baudouin E, Frendo P (2007) Glutathione synthesis is regulated by nitric oxide in Medicago truncatula roots. Planta 225:1597–1602PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Ishikawa G, Yonemaru J, Saito M, Nakamura T (2007) PCR-based landmark unique gene (PLUG) markers effectively assign homoeologous wheat genes to A, B and D genomes. BMC Genomics 8:135PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ishikawa G, Nakamura T, Ashida T, Saito M, Nasuda S, Endo TR, Wu J, Matsumoto T (2009) Localization of anchor loci representing five hundred annotated rice genes to wheat chromosomes using PLUG markers. Theor Appl Genet 118:499–514PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Islam MS (2012) Nutrio-physiological studies on saline and alkaline toxicities and tolerance in Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) and Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.). A Ph. D. thesis, Department of Environmental Dynamics and Management, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, JapanGoogle Scholar
  97. Islam MS, Akhter MM, El Sabagh A, Liu LY, Nguyen TN, Masaoka Y, Saneoka H (2011) Comparative studies on growth and physiological responses to saline and alkaline stresses of Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) and Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.). Aust J Crop Sci 5(10):1269–1277Google Scholar
  98. Jaglo-Ottosen KR, Gilmour SJ, Zarka DG, Schabenberger O, Thomashow MF (1998) Arabidopsis CBF1 overexpression induces COR genes and enhances freezing tolerance. Science 280:104–106PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. James RA, Blake C, Zwart AB, Hare RA, Rathjen AJ, Munns R (2012) Impact of ancestral wheat sodium exclusion genes Nax1 and Nax2 on grain yield of durum wheat on saline soils. Funct Plant Biol 39(7):609–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Munns R, James RA, Xu B, Athman A, Conn SJ, Jordans C, Byrt CS, Hare RA, Tyerman SD, Tester M, Plett D (2012) Wheat grain yield on saline soils is improved by an ancestral Na+ transporter gene. Nat Biotechnol 30(4):360–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Jin H, Martin C (1999) Multifunctionality and diversity within the plant MYB-gene family. Plant Mol Biol 41:577–585PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Johnson RR, Wagner RL, Verhey SD, Walker-simmons MK (2002) The abscisic acid-responsive kinase PKABA1 interacts with a seed-specific abscisic acid response element-binding factor, TaABF, and phosphorylates TaABF peptide sequences. Plant Physiol 130:837–846PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Joshi YC, Quadar A, Rana RS (1979) Differential sodium and potassium accumulation related to sodicity tolerance in wheat. Indian J Plant Physiol 22:226–230Google Scholar
  104. Kaiser WM (1987) Effect of water deficit on photosynthetic capacity. Physiol Plant 71:142–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Kalhoro NA, Rajpar I, Kalhoro SA, Ali A, Raza S, Ahmed M, Kalhoro FA, Ramzan M Wahid F (2016) Effect of salts stress on the growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Am J Plant Sci 7:2257–2271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kam J, Gresshoff PM, Shorter R, Xue GP (2008) The Q-type C2 H2 zinc finger subfamily of transcription factors in Triticum aestivum is predominantly expressed in roots and enriched with members containing an EAR repressor motif and responsive to drought stress. Plant Mol Biol 67(3):305–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Karakas B, Ozias-Akins P, Stushnoff C, Suefferheld M, Rieger M (1997) Salinity and drought tolerance in mannitol-accumulating transgenic tobacco. Plant Cell Environ 20:609–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kawano T, Kawano N, Muto S, Lapeyrie F (2002) Retardation and inhibition of the cation-induced superoxide generation in BY-2 tobacco cell suspension culture by Zn2+ and Mn2+. Plant Physiol 114:395–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Khayatnezhad M, Gholamine R (2011) Effects of water and salt stresses on germination and seedling growth in two durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) genotypes. Sci Res Essays 6:4597–4603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Khayatnezhad M, Gholamin R, Jamaati-e-Somarin SH, Zabihi-emahmoodabad R (2010) Study of NaCl salinity effect on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars at germination stage. AE J Agric Environ Sci 9:128–132Google Scholar
  111. Kim JM, Kim H, Kwon SB, Lee SY, Chung SC, Jeong DW, Min BM (2004) Intracellular glutathione status regulates mouse bone marrow monocyte-derived macrophage differentiation and phagocytic activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 325:101–108PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. King IP, Forster BP, Law CC, Cant KA, Orford SE, Gorham J, Reader S, Miller TE (1997) Introgression of salt-tolerance genes from Thinopyrum bessarabicum into wheat. New Phytol 137:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Kingsbury RW, Epstein E, Pearcy RW (1984) Physiological responses to salinity in selected lines of wheat. Plant Physiol 74:417–423PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kosová K, VÚtámvás P, Planchon S, Renaut J, Vanková R, Prášil IT (2013) Proteome analysis of cold response in spring and winter wheat ( ) crowns reveals similarities in stress adaptation and differences in regulatory processes between the growth habits. J Proteome Res 12(11):4830–4845Google Scholar
  115. Kosová K, Holková L, Prášil IT, Prášilová P, Bradáčová M, Vítámvás P, Čapková V (2008) Expression of dehydrin 5 during the development of frost tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare). J Plant Physiol 165:1142–1151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2007.10.009 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Kosová K, Prášil IT, Vítámvás P (2013a) Protein contribution to plant salinity response and tolerance acquisition. Int J Mol Sci 14:6757–6789.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14046757 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Kosová K, Vítámvás P, Prášil IT (2014) Proteomics of stress responses in wheat and barley – search for potential protein markers of stress tolerance. Front Plant Sci 5:711.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2014.00711 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Kovtun Y, Chiu WL, Tena G, Sheen J (2000) Functional analysis of oxidative stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:2940–2945PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Kramer U, Amtmann A (2012) Salt stress signals shape the plant root Carlos S Galvan-Ampudia and Christa Testerink. Plant Biol 14:296–302Google Scholar
  120. Kumar M, Choi JY, Kumari N, Pareek A, Kim SR (2015) Molecular breeding in Brassica for salt tolerance: importance of microsatellite (SSR) markers for molecular breeding in Brassica. Front Plant Sci 6:688PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Kumari PH, Kumar SA, Suravajhala P, Jalaja N, Giri PR, Kishor PK (2014) Contribution of bioinformatics to gene discovery in salt stress responses in plants. In: Agricultural bioinformatics. Springer, New Delhi, pp 109–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Labhilili M, Joudrier P, Gautier MF (1995) Characterization of cDNAs encoding Triticum durum dehydrins and their expression patterns in cultivars that differ in drought tolerance. Plant Sci 112:219–230.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-9452(95)04267-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Lambers H (1985) Respiration in intact plants and tissues: its regulation and dependence on environmental factors, metabolism and invaded organisms. In: Douce R, Day DA (eds) Encyclopedia of plant physiology new series, vol 18. Springer, Berlin, pp 418–473Google Scholar
  124. Lee TG, Jang CS, Kim JY, Kim DS, Park JH, Kim DY, Seo YW (2007) A Myb transcription factor (TaMyb1) from wheat roots is expressed during hypoxia: roles in response to the oxygen concentration in root environment and abiotic stresses. Physiol Plant 129:375–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Levine RL, Garland D, Oliver C, Amici A, Clement I, Lenz AG, Ahn BW, Shaltiel S, Stadtman ER (1990) Determination of carboxyl content in oxidatively modified proteins. Methods Enzymol 186:464–478PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Levitt J (1980) Responses of plants to environmental stresses. In: Levitt J (ed) (1980): responses of plants to environmental stresses. Vol. II. Water, radiation, salt and other stresses, 2nd edn. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  127. Li J, Li X, Guo L, Lu F, Feng X, He K, Wei L, Chen Z, Qu LJ, Gu H (2006) A subgroup of MYB transcription factor genes undergoes highly conserved alternative splicing in Arabidopsis and rice. J Exp Bot 57:1263–1273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Li H, Sun J, Xu JH, Wu X Li C (2007) The bHLH-type transcription factor AtAIB positively regulates ABA response in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol 65:655–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Libault M, Wan J, Czechowski T, Udvardi M, Stacey G (2007) Identification of 118 arabidopsis transcription factor and 30 ubiquitin-ligase genes responding to Chitin, a plant-defense elicitor. Mol Plant Microb Interact 20:900–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Lindsay MP, Lagudah ES, Hare RA, Munns R (2004) A locus for sodium exclusion (Nax1), a trait for salt tolerance, mapped in durum wheat. Funct Plant Biol 31:1105–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Liu Q, Kasuga M, Sakuma Y, Abe H, Miura S, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Shinozaki K (1998) Two transcription factors, DREB1 and DREB2, with an EREBP/AP2 DNA-binding domain separate two cellular signal transduction pathways in drought- and low temperature–responsive gene expression, respectively, in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 10:1391–1406PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Loester WH, Tyson RH, Everard JD, Redgwell RJ, Bieleski RL (1992) Mannitol synthesis in higher plants: evidence for the role and characterization of a NADPH-dependent mannose-6-phosphate reductase. Plant Physiol 98:1396–1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Longnecker DE (1974) The influence of high sodium upon fruiting and shedding boll characteristics, fiber properties and yields of two cotton species. Soil Sci 118:387–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Mackay I, Powell W (2007) Methods for linkage disequilibrium mapping in crops. Trends Plant Sci 12(2):57–63PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. Mahajan S, Tuteja N (2005) Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview. Arch Biochem Biophys 444:139–158PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Mahar AR, Hollington PA, Virk DS, Witcombe JR (2003) Selection for early heading and salt tolerance in bread wheat. Cereal Res Commun 31:81–88Google Scholar
  137. Mandhania SS, Madan S, Sawhney V (2006) Antioxidant defense mechanism under salt stress in wheat seedlings. Biol Plant 50(2):227–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Mansour MMF (2000) Nitrogen containing compounds and adaptation of plants to salinity stress. Biol Plant 43:491–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Mao X, Zhang H, Qian X, Li A, Zhao G, Jing R (2012) TaNAC2, a NAC-type wheat transcription factor conferring enhanced multiple abiotic stress tolerances in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot 63(8):2933–2946PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Mare C, Mazzucotelli E, Crosatti C, Francia E, Stanca AM, Cattivelli L (2004) Hv-WRKY38: a new transcription factor involved in cold and drought-response in barley. Plant Mol Biol 55:399–416PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  142. Meneguzzo S, Navari-Izzo F, Izzo R (2000) NaCl effects on water relations and accumulation of mineral nutrients in shoots, roots and cell sap of wheat seedlings. J Plant Physiol 156(56):711–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Mitsuda N, Ohme-takagi M (2009) Functional analysis of transcription factors in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol 50:1232–1248PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Moeinrad H (2008) The relationship between some physiological traits and salt tolerance in pistachio genotypes. Dissertation 13:129–136Google Scholar
  145. Moellering D, McAndrew J, Patel RP, Cornwell T, Lincoln T, Cao X, Messina JL, Forman HJ, Jo H, Darley-Usmar VM (1998) Nitric oxide-dependent induction of glutathione synthesis through increased expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Arch Biochem Biophys 358:74–82PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Morgan JE (1984) Osmoregulation and water stress in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 35:299–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Morrell PL, Buckler ES, Ross-Ibarra J (2011) Crop genomics: advances and applications. Nat Rev Genet 13(2):85–96PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Mott IW, Wang RRC (2007) Comparative transcriptome analysis of salt-tolerant wheat germplasm lines using wheat genome arrays. Plant Sci 173:327–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Moustafa AH, Shabussy AI, Gohar AI, Abd-El-Naim EN, Rahman AA, Elsbal ME (1966) Growth and cationic accumulation by wheat and barley, as influenced by various levels of exchangeable sodium. Agric Res Rev Cairo 44:1–17Google Scholar
  150. Mudgal V, Madaan N, Mudgal A (2010) Biochemical mechanisms of salt tolerance in plants: A review. Int J Bot 6:136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Munns R (1993) Physiological processes limiting plant growth in saline soils. Some dogmas and hypotheses. Plant Cell Environ 16:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 25:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Munns R (2005) Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them together. New Phytol 167:645–663.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01487.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. Munns R, James RA (2003) Screening methods for salinity tolerance: a case study with tetraploid wheat. Plant Soil 253:201–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Munns R, Termaat A (1986) Whole-plant responses to salinity. Aust J Plant Physiol 13:143–160Google Scholar
  156. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Munns R, Hare RA, James RA, Rebetzke GJ (2000) Genetic variation for improving the salt tolerance of durum wheat. Aust J Agric Res 51:69–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Munns R, James RA, Läuchli A (2006) Approaches to increasing the salt tolerance of wheat and other cereals. Journal of Experimental Botany 57 (5):1025-1043PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. Naidu BP, Paleg LG, Aspinall D, Jennings AC, Jones GP (1991) Amino acid and glycine betaine accumulation in cold-stressed wheat seedlings. Phytochemistry 30:407–409.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0031–9422(91)83693-F CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Naik GR, Joshi GV (1983) Ineffectual role of proline metabolism in salt stressed sugarcane leaves. Proc Indian Acad Sci 92:265–269Google Scholar
  161. Negrão S, Schmöckel SM, Tester M (2017) Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress. Ann Bot 119(1):1–11PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Neill SJ, Desikan R, Clarke A, Hurat RD, Hancock JT (2002) Hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide as signalling molecules in plants. J Exp Bot 53:1237–1247PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. Neumann P (1997) Salinity resistance and plant growth revisited. Plant Cell Environ 20:1193–1198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Niknam SR, Mccomb J (2000) Salt tolerance screening of selected Australian woody species-a review. For Ecol Manag 139:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Niu X, Bressan RA, Hasegawa PM, Pardo JM (1995) Ion homeostasis in NaCl stress environments. Plant Physiol 109:735–742PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Noctor G, Foyer CH (1998) Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:249–279PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Oyiga BC (2017) Genetic variation of traits related to salt stress response in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Ph.D. thesis, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  168. Pareek-Singla SL, Grover A (1997) Salt responsive proteins/genes in crop plants. In: Jaiwal PK, Singh RP, Gulati A (eds) Strategies for improving salt tolerance in higher plants. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  169. Parvaiz A, Satyawati S (2008) Salt stress and phyto-biochemical responses of plants – a review. Plant Soil Environ 54(3):89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Peng Z, Wang M, Li F, Lv H, Li C, Xia G (2009) A proteomic study of the response to salinity and drought stress in an introgression strain of bread wheat. Mol Cell Proteomics 8:2676–2686.  https://doi.org/10.1074/mcp.M900052-MCP200 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  171. Petrusa LM, Winicov I (1997) Proline status in salt tolerant and salt sensitive alfalfa cell lines and plants in response to NaCl. Plant Physiol Biochem 35:303–310Google Scholar
  172. Polverari A, Molesini B, Pezzotti M, Buonaurio R, Marte M, Delledonne M (2003) Nitric oxide-mediated transcriptional changes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 16:1084–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Poonia SR, Virmani SM, Bhumla DR (1972) Effect of ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) of soil on the yield, chemical composition and uptake of applied calcium by wheat. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 20:183–185Google Scholar
  174. Qadir M, Quillerou E, Nangia V, Murtaza G, Singh M, Thomas RJ, Drechsel P, Noble AD (2014) Economics of salt-induced land degradation and restoration. Nat Resour Forum 38:282–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Qados A (2011) Effect of salt stress on plant growth and metabolism of bean plant Vicia faba (L.). J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 10:7–15Google Scholar
  176. Qin Y, Wang M, Tian Y, He W, Han L, Xia G (2012) Over-expression of TaMYB33 encoding a novel wheat MYB transcription factor increases salt and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Mol Biol Rep 39:7183–7192PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. Qureshi RH, Ahmad R, Ilyas M, Aslam Z (1980) Screening of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for salt tolerance. Pak J Agric Sci 17:19–26Google Scholar
  178. Rahaie M, Xue GP, Naghavi MR, Alizadeh H, Schenk PM (2010) A MYB gene from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is up-regulated during salt and drought stresses and differentially regulated between salt-tolerant and sensitive genotypes. Plant Cell Rep 29:835–844PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Rahaie M, Gomarian M, Alizadeh H, Malboobi MA, Naghavi MR (2011) The expression analysis of transcription factors under long term salt stress in tolerant and susceptible wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes using Reverse Northern Blot. Iranian J Crop Sci 13(3):580–595Google Scholar
  180. Rahaie M, Xue GP, Schenk PM (2013) The role of transcription factors in wheat under different abiotic stresses. In: Vahdati K, Leslie C (eds) Abiotic stress – plant responses and applications in agriculture. InTech, Rijeka, pp 367–385Google Scholar
  181. Rahman M, Zahan F, Sikdar SI, EL Sabagh A, Ratnasekera D, Barutcular C, Islam MS (2017) Evaluatıon of salt tolerance mungbean genotypes and mıtıgatıon of salt stress through potassıum nıtrate fertılızatıon. Fresenius Environ Bull 26(12):7218–7226Google Scholar
  182. Rana RS (1986) Evaluation and utilisation of traditionally grown cereal cultivars on salt affected areas in India. Indian J Genet Plant Breed 46:121–135Google Scholar
  183. Rhodes D, Hanson AD (1993) Quaternary ammonium and tertiary sulfonium compounds in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 44:357–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Rhodes D, Nadolska-Orczyk A, Rich PJ (2002) Salinity, osmolytes and compatible solutes. In: Lauchli A, Luttge U (eds) Salinity, environment, plant, molecules. Al-Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 181–204Google Scholar
  185. Roy SJ, Negrão S, Tester M (2014) Salt resistant crop plants. Curr Opin Biotechnol 26:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Sachs MM, Ho TD (1986) Alteration of gene expression during environmental stress in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 37:363–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Sadak MS, Abdelhamid MT (2015) Influence of amino acids mixture application on some biochemical aspects, antioxidant enzymes and endogenous polyamines of Vicia faba plant grown under seawater salinity stress. Gesunde Pflanzen 67:119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Sairam RK, Rao KV, Srivastava GC (2002) Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Sci 163:1037–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Sakuma Y, Maruyama K, Osakabe Y, Qin F, Seki M, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchishinozaki K (2006) Functional analysis of an Arabidopsis transcription factor, DREB2A, involved in drought-responsive gene expression. Plant Cell 18:1292–1309PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Sarhadi E, Mahfoozi S, Hosseini SA, Salekdeh GH (2010) Cold acclimation proteome analysis reveals close link between upregulation of low-temperature associated proteins and vernalization fulfillment. J Proteome Res 9:5658–5667.  https://doi.org/10.1021/pr100475r CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. Schleiff U (2008) Analysis of water supply of plants under saline soil conditions and conclusions for research on crop salt tolerance. J Agron Crop Sci 194:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Semagn K, Bjørnstad Å, Xu Y (2010) The genetic dissection of quantitative traits in crops. Electron J Biotechnol 13(5):16–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Semida WM, Rady MM (2014) Presoaking application of propolis and maize grain extracts alleviates salinity stress in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Sci Hortic 168:210–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Serraj R, Sinclair TR (2002) Osmolyte accumulation: can it really help increase crop yield under drought conditions? Plant Cell Environ 25:333–341PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Shannon MC (1998) Adaptation of plants to salinity. Adv Agron 60:75–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Shao HB, Chu LY, Lu ZH, Kang CM (2007) Primary antioxidant free radical scavenging and redox signaling pathways in higher plant cells. Int J Biol Sci 4:8–14PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  197. Sharma R (2015) Salt stress genotypic response: Wheat cultivars relative tolerance of certain to salinity. J Hortic 2:158.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2376-0354.1000158 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Sharma SS, Dietz KJ (2006) The significance of amino acids and amino acid-derived molecules in plant responses and adaptation to heavy metal stress. J Exp Bot 57:711–726.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erj073. PMID: 16473893CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. Shen B, Jensen RG, Bohnert HJ (1997) Increased resistance to oxidative stress in transgenic plants by targeting mannitol biosynthesis to chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 113:1177–1183PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Sheokand S, Kumari A, Sawhney V (2008) Effect of nitric oxide and putrescine on antioxidative responses under NaCl stress in chickpea plants. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 14:355–362PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. Shi Q, Ding F, Wang X, Wei M (2007) Exogenous nitric oxide protect cucumber roots against oxidative stress induced by salt stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 45:542–550PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  202. Siddiqui SH, Krishnamoorthy N (1987) Effect of B-9 on proline content of gram (Cicer arietinum) under saline conditions. Indian J Plant Physiol 30:107–110Google Scholar
  203. Siler B, Misic D, Filipovic B, Popovic Z, Cvetic T, Mijovic A (2007) Effects of salinity on in vitro growth and photosynthesis of common centaury (Centaurium erythraea Rafn.). Arch Biol Sci 59:129–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Singh NK, Bracken CA, Hasegawa PM, Handa AK, Buckel S, Hermodson MA, Pfankoch F, Regnier FE, Bressan RA (1987) Characterization of osmotin. A thaumatin-like protein associated with osmotic adjustment in plant cells. Plant Physiol 85:529–536PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Singh HP, Kaur S, Batish DR, Sharma VP, Sharma N, Kohli RK (2009) Nitric oxide alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing oxidative damage in the roots of Oryza sativa (rice). Nitric Oxide 20:289–297PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  206. Sobhanian N, Pakniyat H, Kordshooli MA, Dorostkar S, Aliakbari M, Nasiri ZF (2016) Electrophoresis study of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) protein changes under salinity stress. Sci Res 4(2):33–36.  https://doi.org/10.11648/j.sr.20160402.12 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Soto-Cerda BJ, Cloutier S (2012) Association mapping in plant genomes. In: Genetic diversity in plants. Intech, RijekaGoogle Scholar
  208. Srivastava N (2017) Biochemical and molecular responses in higher plants under salt stress. In: Shukla V, Kumar S, Kumar N (eds) Plant adaptation strategies in changing environment. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd, Singapore, p 117.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-6744-0_5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Stewart GR, Lee JA (1974) The role of proline accumulation in halophytes. Planta 120:279–289PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  210. Storey R, Wyn-Jones RG (1975) Betaine and choline levels in plants and their relationship to NaCl stress. Plant Sci Lett 4:161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Strizhov N, Abrahám E, Okrész L, Blickling S, Zilberstein A, Schell J, Koncz C, Szabados L (1997) Differential expression of two P5CS genes controlling proline accumulation during salt-stress requires ABA and is regulated by ABA1, ABI1 and AXR2 in Arabidopsis. Plant J 12:557–569PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  212. Sultana N, Ikeda T, Itoh R (2000) Effect of NaCl salinity on photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation in developing rice grains. Environ Exp Bot 42:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Sung CH, Hong JK (2010) Sodium nitroprusside mediates seedling development and attenuation of oxidative stresses in Chinese cabbage. Plant Biotechnol Rep 4:243–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Takeda S, Matsuoka M (2008) Genetic approaches to crop improvement: responding to environmental and population changes. Nat Rev Genet 9(6):444–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Tal M (1984) Physiological genetics of salt resistance in higher plants, studies on the level of the whole plant and isolated organs, tissues and cells. In: Staples RC, Toenniessen GH (eds) Salinity tolerance in plants, strategies for crop improvement. Wiley, New York, p 443Google Scholar
  216. Tarczynski MC, Jensen RG, Bohnert HJ (1992) Expression of a bacterial mtlD gene in transgenic tobacco leads to production and accumulation of mannitol. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:2600–2604PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Tarczynski MC, Jensen RG, Bohnert HJ (1993) Stress protection of transgenic tobacco by production of the osmolyte mannitol. Science 259:508–510PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  218. Tavallali V, Rahemi M, Eshgi S, Kholdebarin B, Ramezanian A (2010) Zinc alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant enzyme activity in the leaves of pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Badami) seedlings. Turk J Agri For 34:349–359Google Scholar
  219. Tester M, Davenport R (2003) Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants. Ann Bot 91:503–507PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Thomas JC, Sepahi M, Arendall B, Bohnert HJ (1995) Enhancement of seed germination in high salinity by engineering mannitol expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Environ 18:801–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Tian X, Lei Y (2006) Nitric oxide treatment alleviates drought stress in wheat seedlings. Biol Plant 50:775–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Turan S, Tripathy BC (2012) Salt and genotype impact on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in two rice cultivars during de-etiolation. Protoplasma 250(1):209–22doi.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-012-0395-5 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  223. Turan S, Cornish K, Kumar S (2012) Salinity tolerance in plants: breeding and genetic engineering. Aust J Crop Sci 6(9):1337–1348Google Scholar
  224. Turki N, ShehzadT HM, Tarchi M, Okuno K (2014) Variation in response to salt stress at seedling and maturity stages among durum wheat varieties. J Arid Land Stud 24(1):261–264Google Scholar
  225. Unesco Water Portal (2007). http://www.unesco.org/water
  226. Uno Y, Furihata T, Abe H, Yoshida R, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-shinazachi K (2000) Arabidopsis basic leucine zipper transcription factors involved in an abscisic acid-dependent signal transduction pathways under drought and high-salinity conditions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:11632–11637PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Urao T, Yakubov B, Satoh R, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Seki B et al (1999) A trans-membrane hybrid-type histidine kinase in Arabidopsis functions as an osmosensor. Plant Cell 11:1743–1754PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. USDA-ARS (2008) Research databases. Bibliography on salt tolerance.US Dep 1348 Agric Agric Res Serv Riverside CA http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=8908
  229. Vágújfalvi A, Crosatti C, Galiba G, Dubcovsky J, Cattivelli L (2000) Two loci of chromosome 5A regulate the differential cold-dependent expression of the cor-14b gene in frost-tolerant and frost-sensitive genotypes. Mol Gen Genet 263:194–200.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s004380051160 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  230. Vágújfalvi A, Galiba G, Cattivelli L, Dubcovsky J (2003) The cold-regulated transcriptional activator Cbf3 is linked to the frost-tolerance locus Fr-A2 on wheat chromosome 5A. Mol Gen Genomics 269:60–67.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00438-003-0806-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Varshney RK, Bansal KC, Aggarwal PK, Datta SK, Craufurd PQ (2011) Agricultural biotechnology for crop improvement in a variable climate: hope or hype? Trends Plant Sci 16:363–371PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  232. Vítámvás P, Saalbach G, Prášil IT, Čapková V, Opatrná J, Jahoor A (2007) WCS120 protein family and proteins soluble upon boiling in cold-acclimated winter wheat. J Plant Physiol 164:1197–1207.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2006.06.011 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  233. Vranova E, Inze D, Van Breusegem F (2002) Signal transduction during oxidative stress. J Exp Bot 53:1227–1236PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  234. Wang YS, Yang ZM (2005) Nitric oxide reduces aluminum toxicity by preventing oxidative stressing the roots of Cassia tora L. Plant Cell Physiol 46:1915–1923PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  235. Wang L, Showalter AM, Ungar IA (1997) Effect of salinity on growth, ion content and cell wall chemistry in Atriplex prostrata (Chenopodiaceae). Am J Bot 84(9):1247–1255PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  236. Wang W, Vinocur B, Altman A (2003) Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta 218:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-003-1105-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Weisany W, Sohrabi Y, Heidari G, Siosemardeh A, Ghassemi- Golezani K (2011) Physiological responses of soybean (Glycine max L.) to zinc application under salinity stress. Aust J Crop Sci 5:1441–1447Google Scholar
  238. Weisany W, Sohrabi Y, Heidari G, Siosemardeh A, Ghassemi- Golezani K (2012) Changes in antioxidant enzymes activity and plant performance by salinity stress and zinc application in soybean (Glycine max L.). Plant Omic J 5:60–67Google Scholar
  239. Winicov I (1998) New molecular approaches to improving salt tolerance in crop plants. Ann Bot 82:703–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Wyn Jones RG, Gorham J (1983) Aspects of salt and drought tolerance in higher plants. In: KosugeT MCP, Hollaender A (eds) Genetic engineering of plants, an agricultural perspective. Plenum Press, New York, pp 355–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Wyn-Jones RG, Storey R (1981) Betains. In: Paleg LG, Aspinall O (eds) Physiology and biochemistry of drought tolerance. Academic, Sydney, pp 171–204Google Scholar
  242. Xia N, Zhang G, Liu XY, Deng L, Cai GL, Zhang Y Wang XJ, Zhao J, Huang LL, Kang ZS (2010a) Characterization of a novel wheat NAC transcription factor gene involved in defense response against stripe rust pathogen infection and abiotic stresses. Mol Biol Rep 37:3703–3712PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  243. Xia N, Zhang G, Sun YF, Zhu L, Xu LS, Chen XM, Liu B, Yu YT, Wang XJ, Huang LL, Kang ZS (2010b) TaNAC8, a novel NAC transcription factor gene in wheat, responds to stripe rust pathogen infection and abiotic stresses. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 74:394–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Xu Y, Sun X, Jin J, Zhou H (2010) Protective effect of nitric oxide on light-induced oxidative damage in leaves of tall fescue. J Plant Physiol 167:512–518PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  245. Xue GP, Bower NI, Mcintyre CL, Riding GA, Kazan K, Shorter R (2006) TaNAC69 from the NAC superfamily of transcription factors is up-regulated by abiotic stresses in wheat and recognizes two consensus DNA-binding sequences. Funct Plant Biol 33:43–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Yadav SK, Singla-Pareek SL, Ray M, Reddy MK, Sopory SK (2005a) Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing glyoxalase enzymes resist an increase in methylglyoxal and maintain higher reduced glutathione levels under salinity stress. FEBS Lett 579:6265–6271PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  247. Yadav SK, Singla-Pareek SL, Reddy MK, Sopory SK (2005b) Methylglyoxal levels in plants under salinity stress are dependent on glyoxalase I and glutathione. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 337:61–67PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  248. Yancey PH (1994) Compatible and counteracting solutes. In: Strange K (ed) Cellular and molecular physiology of cell volume regulation. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 81–109Google Scholar
  249. Yeo AR (1998) Molecular biology of salt tolerance in the context of whole plant physiology. J Exp Bot 49:915–929Google Scholar
  250. Yıldız M, Terzi H (2008) Effects of NaCl on protein profiles of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat species and their diploid wild progenitors. Plant Soil Environ 54(6):227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Zago MP, Oteiza PI (2001) The antioxidant properties of zinc: interactions with iron and antioxidants. Free Radic Biol Med 31:266–274PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  252. Zeinali G, Mirzaghaderi G, Badakhshan H (2013) Genome structure and salt stress response of some segregated lines from wheat and Tritipyrum crosses. Cytologia 78(4):367–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Zhang LC, Zhao GY, Jia JZ, Kong XY (2009) Cloning and analysis of salt stress related gene TaMYB32 in wheat. Acta Agron Sin 35:1181–1187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Zhang L, Zhao G, Jia J, Liu X Kong X (2012) Molecular characterization of 60 isolated wheat MYB genes and analysis of their expression during abiotic stress. J Exp Bot 63:203–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Zhang L, Zhang L, Xia C, Zhao G, Jia J, Kong X (2016) The novel wheat transcription factor tanac47 enhances multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic plants. Front Plant SciFront Plant Sci 6:1174.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.01174 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Zhao GQ, Ma BL, Ren CZ (2007) Growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and ion content of naked oat in response to salinity. Crop Sci 47:123–131.  https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2006.06.0371 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Zheng Y, Xu X, Li Z Yang X (2009) Differential responses of grain yield and quality to euphytica, salinity between wheat cultivars. Seeds Sci Biotechnol 3:40–43Google Scholar
  258. Zhong L, Xu Y, Wang J (2009) DNA-methylation changes induced by salt stress in wheat Triticum aestivum. Afr J Biotechnol 8(22):6201–6207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Zhu JK (2002) Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:247–273PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Zhu C, Gore M, Buckler ES, Yu J (2008) Status and prospects of association mapping in plants. Plant Genome J 1(1):5–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neerja Srivastava
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, IBSBTCSJM UniversityKanpurIndia

Personalised recommendations