Trending Methods to Enhance Antioxidant Activities in Wheat

  • Kratika Pathak
  • Sunita Kataria
  • Rekha Gadre


Free radicals are defined as any molecular species which are proficient of independent existence and consist of an unpaired electron in their atomic orbital. These free radicals are derived from reactive oxygen or reactive nitrogen species which are generally produced in cellular metabolism and tend to increase under stress conditions. The most vulnerable biological targets of these reactive species include biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. To neutralize the adverse effect of free radicals, a strong antioxidant mechanism is required in plant cells. Wheat is one of the major cereals in the world, which is used in food and nonfood products. Wheat is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions both under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, as it has a high level of adaptation. Wheat has a well-known antioxidant defense mechanism, i.e., enzymatic and nonenzymatic. However, crop production is adversely affected by environmental stresses alone or in combination. These stresses are commonly due to salinity, drought, waterlogging, cold, heavy metals, etc. Recent studies suggest the use of algal consortium in the soil, treatment with external agents like organic acids, signaling molecules, essential elements, seed priming, etc. can lead to a constructive approach toward a high yield of wheat under adverse conditions.


Antioxidant activity Algal consortium Organic acids Oxidative stress Seed priming 



abscisic acid


ascorbate peroxidase


ascorbic acid


adenosine triphosphate






carbon monoxide




dehydroascorbate reductase




glycolate oxidase


glutathione peroxidase


glutathione reductase


glutathione synthase


reduced glutathione


oxidized glutathione


glutathione S-transferase


heme oxygenase


indoleacetic acid






monodehydroascorbate reductase


nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide


nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate


nitric oxide


nitric oxide synthases


nitrate reductase




polyethylene glycol


guaiacol peroxidase




photosystem II


reactive oxygen species


relative water content


salicylic acid


salicylhydroxamic acid


sodium nitroprusside


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kratika Pathak
    • 1
  • Sunita Kataria
    • 1
  • Rekha Gadre
    • 1
  1. 1.School of BiochemistryDevi Ahilya VishwavidyalayaIndoreIndia

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