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Trending Methods to Enhance Antioxidant Activities in Wheat

  • Kratika Pathak
  • Sunita Kataria
  • Rekha Gadre
Chapter

Abstract

Free radicals are defined as any molecular species which are proficient of independent existence and consist of an unpaired electron in their atomic orbital. These free radicals are derived from reactive oxygen or reactive nitrogen species which are generally produced in cellular metabolism and tend to increase under stress conditions. The most vulnerable biological targets of these reactive species include biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. To neutralize the adverse effect of free radicals, a strong antioxidant mechanism is required in plant cells. Wheat is one of the major cereals in the world, which is used in food and nonfood products. Wheat is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions both under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, as it has a high level of adaptation. Wheat has a well-known antioxidant defense mechanism, i.e., enzymatic and nonenzymatic. However, crop production is adversely affected by environmental stresses alone or in combination. These stresses are commonly due to salinity, drought, waterlogging, cold, heavy metals, etc. Recent studies suggest the use of algal consortium in the soil, treatment with external agents like organic acids, signaling molecules, essential elements, seed priming, etc. can lead to a constructive approach toward a high yield of wheat under adverse conditions.

Keywords

Antioxidant activity Algal consortium Organic acids Oxidative stress Seed priming 

Abbreviations

ABA

abscisic acid

APX

ascorbate peroxidase

AsA

ascorbic acid

ATP

adenosine triphosphate

CAT

catalase

CK

cytokinins

CO

carbon monoxide

DHA

dehydroascorbate

DHAR

dehydroascorbate reductase

DMSP

dimethylsulfoniopropionate

GO

glycolate oxidase

GPX

glutathione peroxidase

GR

glutathione reductase

GS

glutathione synthase

GSH

reduced glutathione

GSSG

oxidized glutathione

GST

glutathione S-transferase

HO

heme oxygenase

IAA

indoleacetic acid

MDA

malondialdehyde

MDHA

monodehydroascorbate

MDHAR

monodehydroascorbate reductase

NADH

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NADPH

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NO

nitric oxide

NOS

nitric oxide synthases

NR

nitrate reductase

PCs

phytochelatins

PEG

polyethylene glycol

POD

guaiacol peroxidase

POX

peroxidases

PSII

photosystem II

ROS

reactive oxygen species

RWC

relative water content

SA

salicylic acid

SHAM

salicylhydroxamic acid

SNP

sodium nitroprusside

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kratika Pathak
    • 1
  • Sunita Kataria
    • 1
  • Rekha Gadre
    • 1
  1. 1.School of BiochemistryDevi Ahilya VishwavidyalayaIndoreIndia

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