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Soil for Sustainable Environment and Ecosystems Management

  • Abhishek Raj
  • Manoj Kumar Jhariya
  • Dhiraj Kumar Yadav
  • Arnab Banerjee
  • Ram Swaroop Meena
Chapter

Abstract

India shares 2% of the world’s geographical area supporting 18% human population and 15% livestock population. Soil is the largest pool on the earth having the capacity to sequester and store a million ton of C (carbon) as soil organic carbon (SOC) pool and in plant as vegetation’s C pool. It helps to reduce atmospheric C and minimize free movement of several GHGs (greenhouse gases) in the atmosphere which forms the basis of global warming which is a major concern today. Soils support all organisms (perennial trees as vegetations, crops, animals, and humans) and harbor a variety of organisms (both micro and macro) which is prerequisite for smooth functioning of the ecosystem. These entire organisms link among them and help in augmenting quality and health of soils through decaying and decomposition of dead plants (by microorganism, earthworm, etc.) and release several essential nutrients which is the basis of life for plant, animal, and humans. Although, healthy soil gives better ecosystem services along with environmental, ecological, and food and nutrition security (FNS). From an Indian perspective, major soil type includes Inceptisols (95.8 Mha), Entisols (80.1 Mha), and Alfisols (79.7 Mha) sharing 77.76% of land cover. C sequestration capacity of soil is a very good strategy for targeting the goal of FNS along with enhancement of soil health and quality. Good soil can enhance productivity of both land and crops, which secure food and nutritional consumption of varying organisms and sort out the problem of food insecurity. The present chapter deals with the issues related to soil, environment, and their sustainability perspective. In this context, sustainable soil management (SSM) performs good job and helps in maintaining organic carbon (OC) stock which improve fertility and physiochemical properties of soil that significantly affects yield parameter of crops (productivity), water availability and use efficiency, and health of soil-inhabiting organism and whole ecosystem processes.

Keywords

C sequestration Ecosystem services Biodiversity FNS Soil health 

Abbreviation

C

Carbon

CO2

Carbon dioxide

FNS

Food and nutrient security

GHGs

Greenhouse gases

MEA

Millennium ecosystem assessment

N

Nitrogen

OC

Organic carbon

OM

Organic matter

SOC

Soil organic carbon

SOM

Soil organic matter

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abhishek Raj
    • 1
  • Manoj Kumar Jhariya
    • 2
  • Dhiraj Kumar Yadav
    • 2
  • Arnab Banerjee
    • 3
  • Ram Swaroop Meena
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Forestry, College of AgricultureIndira Gandhi Krishi VishwavidyalayaRaipurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Farm ForestrySarguja UniversityAmbikapurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Environmental ScienceSarguja UniversityAmbikapurIndia
  4. 4.Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural SciencesBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

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