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Mitigating Climate Change Through Bioclimatic Applications and Cultivation Techniques in Agriculture (Andalusia, Spain)

  • E. CanoEmail author
  • A. Cano-Ortiz
  • C. M. Musarella
  • J. C. Piñar Fuentes
  • J. M. H. Ighbareyeh
  • F. Leyva Gea
  • S. del Río
Chapter

Abstract

Bioclimatology is applied to agricultural and forestry ordinations, as farmlands and woodlands have a bioclimatic optimum for their development. It is essential to consider the thermo-climate and ombro-climate of the bioclimatic belts in the ordination of the territory to guarantee the maximum yield with minimum environmental costs. These bioclimatic parameters (thermo-climatic and ombro-climatic index, It/Itc and Io) are of particular interest in agriculture as a way of mitigating climate change. The main objective is to establish the climate trends and propose a phyto-bioclimatic model to mitigate sudden climate change in agriculture. The spatial pattern of temperature trends in southern Spain (Andalusia) between 1975 and 2007 was determined by analysing time series data from 48 climate stations distributed homogeneously throughout the study area on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis. The regression slopes were calculated with Sen’s test, and the statistical significance of the trends was determined using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test after pre-whitening the series with autocorrelation. The trends detected on the maps were spatially visualised by applying geo-statistical data interpolation techniques. The study found that positive trends have prevailed over negative trends in the last three decades, with increases of up to 4 °C in spring and summer clearly reflecting the highest percentages of stations with a significant positive trend (92% and 85%, respectively). The trends towards the greatest temperature increase were observed in May and June, with somewhat more moderate increases in April and July. Increases in the range of 0.15–0.4 °C/decade were found at the annual level with 87% of stations significant. The temperature increase reduces flowering and produces losses in agricultural yield as a consequence. It is demonstrated that the vegetation cover acts as a soil water reservoir and retains moisture during the summer months.

Keywords

Bioclimatology Change Climatology Mitigation Plant association Trends 

Abbreviations

Alt

Altitude

ETP

Potential evapotranspiration

Io

Ombrothermic index

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Is

Summer ombrothermic indices

It/Itc

Thermo-climatic index

P

Precipitation

PAV

Period of vegetative activity

RC

Soil water retention capacity

Tm

Mean temperature

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Ms Pru Brooke Turner (MA Cantab./University of Cambridge) for the English translation of this book chapter.

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Cano
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Cano-Ortiz
    • 1
  • C. M. Musarella
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. C. Piñar Fuentes
    • 1
  • J. M. H. Ighbareyeh
    • 1
  • F. Leyva Gea
    • 1
  • S. del Río
    • 3
  1. 1.Departamento Biología Animal, Vegetal y Ecología. BotánicaUniversidad de JaénJaénSpain
  2. 2.Dipartimento di AGRARIAUniversità “Mediterranea” di Reggio CalabriaReggio CalabriaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Biodiversity and Environmental Management (Botany), Faculty of Biological and Environmental SciencesUniversity of LeónLeónSpain

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