Advertisement

Smart Water Management for Smart Kozhikode Metropolitan Area

  • T. M. Vinod Kumar
  • C. Mohammed Firoz
  • Puthuvayi BimalEmail author
  • P. S. Harikumar
  • Praveen Sankaran
Chapter
Part of the Advances in 21st Century Human Settlements book series (ACHS)

Abstract

Smart Water is an essential component of the smart environment since life, sustenance, growth and death of the environment depends on water. The concept of smart water is derived from the concept of smart cities having one to one relationship in their building blocks. Smart Water Management is a very high responsive, intelligent digital system operated by IOTs and ICTs, clouds, related computer-based models along with humans to identify water-related issues and even automatically using artificial intelligence solving it in real time without human interventions. The chapter presents an attempt to develop a Smart Water Management for Kozhikode Metropolitan area. Water in the study area is studied in conjunction with the spatial distribution of community in a watershed. The issues arising out of the present and potential usage pattern for households for community wellbeing and economic development is the basis of water resources management in Kozhikode Metropolitan Area (KMA). KMA enjoys substantial precipitation a year and is bound by two major rivers on both sides and are lined by many streams within its jurisdiction. However, KMA faces many water-related problems. A SWOT analysis was performed to identify and consolidate the capabilities of various watersheds and its communities in the study area. The issues faced by various communities were grouped into few categories and solutions were proposed for each community. Integrated Smart Water Management is proposed as a solution to the problems faced by the communities. It is footed on the principles of Water democracy, which is implemented through a system of ICT, IoT and decision support systems. The Integrated Smart Water Management System enables the community to be aware of the issues well in advance and find and implement solutions proactively. A spatial decision support system (SDSS) is proposed to help the community to take decisions related to water management. The SDSS takes many of the decisions as per the set procedure and alerts the community only cases where a systematic solution is not available. The integrated water management system implements the decisions taken by the SDSS, through its automatic sensors and actuators managing the water resources.

Keywords

Integrated smart water management SDSS Smart water communities E-water democracy Kozhikode metropolitan area 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work explained in this chapter is based on one semester work of the second semester students of M.Plan programme at The Department of Architecture and Planning of NIT Calicut during 2016–17. The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the efforts of our students Ms. Anagha K. J., Mr. Arjun P., Ms. Bigly Sathyapal, Ms. Fathima Zehba M. P., Ms. Gopika C. B., Mr. Jose B. Thomas, Ms. Kesowe-U Wetsah, Mr. Kuruva Manoj Kumar, Mr. Lekkala Venkatakrishna Reddy, Ms. Mekhana S. S., Mr. R. S. Vishnu, and Ms. Salimah Hasnah. We also acknowledge the support extended by all our colleagues in the department for this work.

References

  1. 1.
    Batty M et al (2012) Smart cities of the future. Eur Phys J Spec Top 214(1):481–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vinod Kumar TM (2015) E-governance for smart cities. Springer, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vinod Kumar TM (ed) (2016) Smart economy in smart cities. Springer, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cardwell HE, Cole RA, Cartwright LA, Martin LA (2009) Integrated water resources management: definitions and conceptual musings. J Contemp Water Res Educ 135(1):8–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    World Bank (2018) Water resources management overview. [Online]. Available: https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/waterresourcesmanagement. Accessed: 09 Dec 2018
  6. 6.
    GWP (2000) Integrated water resources management global water partnership Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) background paper no. 4Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    The University of Tennessee (2018) What is a smart community? [Online]. Available: https://servicelearning.utk.edu/smart-communities-initiative/what-is-a-smart-community/. Accessed: 10 Dec 2018
  8. 8.
    Studio Report (2017) Smart water management for Kozhikode metropolitan regionGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Firoz M (2015) Reclassification of the typology and pattern of composite settlement systems: a case of Kerala, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Firoz M, Banerji H, Sen J (2014) A methodology to define the typology of rural urban continuum settlements in Kerala. J Reg Dev Plan 3(1):49–60Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Land Use Board (2014) Landuse data for KeralaGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ministry of Water Resources, Ganga Rejuvenation Board, and Central Ground Water Board (2015) Ground water year book of Kerala (2014–2015)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ravi A (2013) Ground water information booklet of Kozhikode district, Kerala StateGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Firoz M (2006) Spatial planing in rural urban interface in Kerala. Inst T Planners India 3(3):1–6Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Firoz M, Banerji H, Sen J (2014) An enquiry into the quality of life and infrastructure delivery in the rural urban continuum—a case study of Kerala settlements India. In: International conference on quality of lifeGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Director of Fisheries (2013) Kerala inland fisheries statistics 2013Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Purakkat DV (2009) Groundwater information system for Calicut corporation on a GIS platform. PhD thesis, University of CalicutGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. A. Indian Express (2017) Salinity ingress posing threat to wells in KozhikodeGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maya KP (2017) Tourism and recreation planning for Kozhikode. NIT, CalicutGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Godina E (2005) Water wars: privatization, pollution, and profit. By Vandana Shiva. J Biosoc Sci 37(03):381–382Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Giupponi C, Sgobbi A (2013) Decision support systems for water resources management in developing countries: learning from experiences in Africa. Water 5(2):798–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wikipedia Contributors (2018) Metropolitan area network—Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Metropolitan_area_network&oldid=863400766. Accessed: 01 Oct 2018
  23. 23.
    Smith L, Der Panne V (2012) The triple helix concept. no 1993, pp 2010–2011Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shiva V (2002) Water wars: privatization, pollution and profit. Pluto Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    ACWADAM (2010) Pani panchayat: a model of groundwater management—a presentation by ACWADAM. [Online]. Available: http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/pani-panchayat-model-groundwater-management-presentation-acwadam. Accessed: 27 Oct 2018
  26. 26.
    Dhanuraj D (2005) Drinking water utilisation—Olavanna shows the way. CochinGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    World Bank (2013) Environmental assessment and environmental management framework. Saint LuciaGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Priya K, Ajay A, Nayar SK (2016) Sustainability in rural water supply: a case study of Jalanidhi, Kerala. Int J Innov Res Sci 5:266–271Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jacob N, Gopalan R, Lala S (2008) Solution exchange for the water community—participatory well recharge programme—Mazhapolima—experiences compiled. India Water PortalGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jha B, Mali SS, Naik SK, Kumar A, Singh AK (2015) Optimal planting geometry and growth stage based fertigation in vegetable crops. Technical bulletin no R-56/Ranchi-25. Research Centre Ranchi, ICAR-Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Li D (2012) Internet of things in aquaculture. Beijing Engineering Research Center for Internet of Things in Agriculture, China Agricultural University, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Huntjens P, Yasuda Y, Swain A, De Man R, Magsig B, Islam S (2016) The multi-track water diplomacy framework: a legal and political economy analysis for advancing cooperation over shared waters. Hague, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pohl B et al (2014) The rise of hydro-diplomacy strengthening foreign policy for transboundary waters. BerlinGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    USGS (2016) United States ground water surveyGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Salaj SS, Ramesh D, Suresh Babu DS (2018) Assessment of coastal change impact on seawater intrusion vulnerability in assessment of coastal change impact on seawater intrusion vulnerability in Kozhikode coastal stretch, South India using geospatial technique. J Coast Sci 5(1):27–41Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. M. Vinod Kumar
    • 1
  • C. Mohammed Firoz
    • 2
  • Puthuvayi Bimal
    • 2
    Email author
  • P. S. Harikumar
    • 3
  • Praveen Sankaran
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Planning and ArchitectureNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Architecture and PlanningNational Institute of Technology CalicutKozhikodeIndia
  3. 3.Water Quality DivisionCentre for Water Resources Development and ManagementKunnamangalamIndia
  4. 4.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringNational Institute of Technology CalicutKozhikodeIndia

Personalised recommendations