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Liver Cirrhosis

  • Terumi TakaharaEmail author
  • Masaki Iwai
  • Wilson M. S. Tsui
Chapter

Abstract

Liver cirrhosis is anatomically defined as a diffuse disruption of the normal architecture of the liver with fibrosis and nodule formation. It is the end result of fibrogenesis caused by chronic liver injury. The anatomical architecture is the same with any etiology: continuous inflammation or hepatocyte damage causes fibrogenesis, and fibers extend from central or portal area, and finally fibrous septa is completely formed to surround regenerative nodules. Thus liver cirrhosis is characterized with hepatocyte dysfunction and portal hypertension.

Keywords

Micronodule Macronodule Child-Pugh classification MELD score Hepatic stellate cell Fibrogenesis Elastography Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Hepatorenal syndrome Reversibility 

Abbreviations

ARFI

Acoustic radiation force impulse

DAA

Direct-acting antiviral

EVL

Endoscopic variceal band ligation

HBV

Hepatitis B virus

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HRS

Hepatorenal syndrome

HSC

Hepatic stellate cell

MELD

The model for end-stage liver disease

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

MRE

Magnetic resonance elastography

NA

Nucleos(t)ide analogue

NASH

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

SBP

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

SWE

Shear wave elastography

TE

Tissue elastography

TGF

Transforming growth factor

TIMP

Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors thank Prof. Hiroko Iijima for her data of FibroScan and 2D shear wave elastography.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Terumi Takahara
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masaki Iwai
    • 2
  • Wilson M. S. Tsui
    • 3
  1. 1.ToyamaJapan
  2. 2.KyotoJapan
  3. 3.Hong KongChina

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