Liver Cirrhosis

  • Terumi TakaharaEmail author
  • Masaki Iwai
  • Wilson M. S. Tsui


Liver cirrhosis is anatomically defined as a diffuse disruption of the normal architecture of the liver with fibrosis and nodule formation. It is the end result of fibrogenesis caused by chronic liver injury. The anatomical architecture is the same with any etiology: continuous inflammation or hepatocyte damage causes fibrogenesis, and fibers extend from central or portal area, and finally fibrous septa is completely formed to surround regenerative nodules. Thus liver cirrhosis is characterized with hepatocyte dysfunction and portal hypertension.


Micronodule Macronodule Child-Pugh classification MELD score Hepatic stellate cell Fibrogenesis Elastography Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Hepatorenal syndrome Reversibility 



Acoustic radiation force impulse


Direct-acting antiviral


Endoscopic variceal band ligation


Hepatitis B virus


Hepatocellular carcinoma


Hepatitis C virus


Hepatorenal syndrome


Hepatic stellate cell


The model for end-stage liver disease


Matrix metalloproteinase


Magnetic resonance elastography


Nucleos(t)ide analogue


Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis


Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis


Shear wave elastography


Tissue elastography


Transforming growth factor


Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase



The authors thank Prof. Hiroko Iijima for her data of FibroScan and 2D shear wave elastography.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Terumi Takahara
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masaki Iwai
    • 2
  • Wilson M. S. Tsui
    • 3
  1. 1.ToyamaJapan
  2. 2.KyotoJapan
  3. 3.Hong KongChina

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